Cases reported "Fever of Unknown Origin"

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1/8. multiple myeloma in a patient with fever of unknown origin and cholestasis.

    The differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin includes infectious diseases, malignancies and connective tissue diseases. multiple myeloma is not usually included in the differential diagnosis, nor is it considered a frequent cause of cholestasis in the absence of amyloidosis. We report a case of multiple myeloma in a patient presenting with a long-standing fever and cholestasis. The patient underwent a long and unfruitful series of diagnostic procedures, including liver biopsy. The clue to the diagnosis, established with a marrow biopsy, was the presence of a paraprotein in the serum.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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2/8. fever of unknown origin caused by adult juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: the diagnostic significance of double quotidian fevers and elevated serum ferritin levels.

    fever of unknown origin (FUO) in adults is a commonly encountered clinical problem. Treatable causes of FUO in the adult should be the primary focus of the diagnostic workup. neoplasms have replaced infectious diseases as being the most common cause of FUO in adults, and collagen vascular diseases are now relatively rare. The most important collagen vascular diseases presenting as an FUO include Takayasu's arteritis, Kikuchi's disease, polymyalgia rheumatica, and adult juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) (adult Still's disease). There are no specific diagnostic tests for these disorders, which commonly present as prolonged fevers that are not easily diagnosed (i.e., FUO). adult JRA is a rare but important cause of FUO in adults. Typically, patients with adult Still's disease present with liver/spleen involvement, posi-articular arthritis, ocular involvement, and evanescent salmon-colored truncal rash. An important diagnostic finding in adult JRA is the presence of a double quotidian fever, which occurs in few other disorders. Only visceral leishmaniasis and adult JRA are causes of FUO in adults associated with double quotidian fevers. Highly elevated serum ferritin levels are the most important nonspecific diagnostic finding associated with adult JRA. We present a case of FUO caused by adult JRA presenting with diffuse polyarticular migrating arthritis, evanescent rash, and splenomegaly. The diagnosis of adult JRA was suggested by these findings in association with a double quotidian fever and a highly elevated serum ferritin level. Clinicians should appreciate the diagnostic significance of fever patterns and the diagnostic significance of elevated serum ferritin levels in patients with FUO.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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3/8. Imaging infection with 18F-FDG-labeled leukocyte PET/CT: initial experience in 21 patients.

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and the potential role of PET/CT with (18)F-FDG-labeled autologous leukocytes in the diagnosis and localization of infectious lesions. methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients with suspected or documented infection were prospectively evaluated with whole-body PET/CT 3 h after injection of autologous (18)F-FDG-labeled leukocytes. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians who were unaware of the clinical end-diagnosis reviewed all PET/CT studies. A visual score (0-3)-according to uptake intensity-was used to assess studies. The results of PET/CT with (18)F-FDG-labeled white blood cell ((18)F-FDG-WBC) assessment were compared with histologic or biologic diagnosis in 15 patients and with clinical end-diagnosis after complete clinical work-up in 6 patients. RESULTS: Nine patients had fever of unknown etiology, 6 patients had documented infection but with unknown extension of the infectious disease, 4 patients had a documented infection with unfavorable evolution, and 2 patients had a documented infection with known extension. The best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity was obtained when a visual score of >or=2 was chosen to identify increased tracer uptake as infection. With this threshold, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were each 86% on a patient-per-patient basis and 91%, 85%, and 90% on a lesion-per-lesion basis. In this small group of patients, the absence of areas with increased WBC uptake on WBC PET/CT had a 100% negative predictive value. CONCLUSION: Hybrid (18)F-FDG-WBC PET/CT was found to have a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of infection. It located infectious lesions with a high precision. In this small series, absence of areas with increased uptake virtually ruled out the presence of infection. (18)F-FDG-WBC PET/CT for infection detection deserves further investigation in a larger prospective series.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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4/8. fever of unknown origin (FUO) caused by multiple myeloma: the diagnostic value of the Naprosyn test.

    fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains a difficult diagnostic problem. The causes of FUO have changed over the years. Neoplastic disorders have now displaced infectious diseases as the most common cause of FUOs. Most neoplasms are associated with no or low-grade temperatures, with some important exceptions. Hypernephromas and lymphomas are neoplasms typically associated with high spiking fevers or may present as FUOs. Hematologic malignancies, that is, the acute and chronic leukemias, myeloproliferative disorders, and multiple myeloma, do not usually present with acute fevers or as FUOs. We present an elderly male patient who presented with an FUO, whose history is significant for multiple myeloma in remission. Differential diagnostic possibilities in this patient included plasma cell leukemia, relapse of multiple myeloma, secondary/superimposed malignancy, or opportunistic infection. The main differential diagnosis for his FUO was between neoplastic and infectious disorders. As part of the diagnostic workup, a Naprosyn test (naproxen 375 mg [by mouth] every 12 hours for 3 days) was used to differentiate neoplastic from infectious causes of FUO in this patient. The Naprosyn test was positive, which indicated a neoplastic explanation for the patient's FUO and eliminated, along with the infectious disease workup, an infectious explanation for his FUO. The patient's FUO was finally determined to be the result of a relapse of multiple myeloma and not of a secondary malignancy or malignant transformation of myeloma into plasma cell leukemia. We conclude the Naprosyn test remains a valuable diagnostic test to use to narrow differential diagnostic possibilities in patients with FUOs when a malignancy is a diagnostic consideration.
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ranking = 2
keywords = infectious disease
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5/8. Bilateral renal parenchymal malacoplakia presenting as fever of unknown origin: case report and review.

    malacoplakia is a rare inflammatory disorder seen most often in the urinary tract, where it is highly associated with coliform infection. Although first recognized by pathologists in 1902, it has received little attention from the infectious disease community. While there remains much uncertainty regarding the specific cause of malacoplakia, it appears to be associated with a defect in intracellular killing of ingested microorganisms by macrophages. We report a case of bilateral renal parenchymal malacoplakia that presented as fever of unknown origin, and we review 33 previously identified cases. Renal malacoplakia has traditionally been associated with high morbidity and mortality. More recently, treatment with antimicrobial agents such as trimethoprim or ciprofloxacin has yielded a better outcome than had been documented with other therapy. malacoplakia should be considered in the evaluation of fever of unknown origin or of relapsing or refractory urinary tract infection. Therapy with antimicrobial agents capable of intracellular penetration is recommended.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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6/8. Inflammatory pseudotumor presenting as fever of unknown origin.

    Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) is an uncommon benign neoplasm of uncertain etiology that classically has been associated with the lung, where it is generally asymptomatic. In recent years, IPT has been increasingly recognized in other sites. Hepatic, abdominal, and pelvic IPTs produce a spectrum of nonspecific symptoms including fever, malaise, anemia, and weight loss. Because prolonged fever is a prominent feature of extrapulmonary IPT, patients with this condition may first come to the attention of specialists in infectious diseases. We describe an illustrative case of pelvic IPT and discuss its presentation, diagnosis, and treatment; we also suggest that infectious disease specialists should be familiar with this entity as a possible diagnosis for patients with fever of unknown origin.
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ranking = 2
keywords = infectious disease
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7/8. Visceral leishmaniasis misdiagnosed as malignant lymphoma.

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, characterized by intermittent fever, monocytosis, hepatosplenomegaly and hypergammaglobulinemia. This morbid condition is rather difficult to diagnose correctly, especially at its early stage, because it is rarely encountered in japan. Recently we treated a case of visceral leishmaniasis in which the patient was misdiagnosed as malignant lymphoma, and went through splenectomy and steroid administration, which made the diagnosis more difficult.
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keywords = infectious disease
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8/8. bartonella henselae as a cause of prolonged fever and fever of unknown origin in children.

    A prospective evaluation of 146 children with fever of unknown origin (FUO) and prolonged fever was performed from 1990 to 1996. FUO was defined as a documented daily temperature of > or = 38 degrees C for at least 14 days without diagnostic signs or symptoms. Prolonged fever was defined as fever for at least 14 days and no diagnosis at the time of referral for evaluation. An established diagnosis was made for 84 (57.5%) of 146 patients. The most common infectious disease diagnoses were Epstein-Barr virus infection (22 [15.1%] of 146), osteomyelitis (14 [9.6%] of 146), bartonellosis (7 [4.8%] of 146), and urinary tract infection (6 [4.1%] of 146). Three of seven patients with confirmed bartonella henselae infection presented with FUO and no ultrasonographic findings compatible with hepatosplenic involvement; two patients presented with FUO and hepatosplenic involvement. The relatively common finding of acute bartonellosis in this population suggests that FUO and prolonged fever in children are other presentations of infection with B. henselae.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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