Cases reported "Fibrosis"

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1/43. Histopathologic effects of radiofrequency catheter ablation in previously infarcted human myocardium.

    INTRODUCTION: The use of catheter-based radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias due to previous myocardial infarction has been steadily increasing. The histopathologic changes caused by this technique are not well described in humans. methods AND RESULTS: Three patients with hemodynamically tolerated ventricular tachycardias (VTs) due to previous myocardial infarction underwent endocardial mapping and catheter based RF ablation. All patients received between 5 and 11 RF lesions each of 60-second duration. One patient underwent myocardial resection of a left ventricular aneurysm 1 day following RF ablation, one expired 7 days after RF ablation, and one expired 9 months after RF ablation. None of the deaths occurred as a result of RF ablation. Pathologic specimens obtained early after RF ablation revealed areas of focal acute inflammation and fibrin deposition. Later specimens revealed several focal areas of fibrosis and granulation tissue. Specimens obtained late after RF ablation revealed a dense band of fibrosis, measuring 17 x 17 x 5 mm (1,250 mm3). CONCLUSION: Catheter-based RF ablation of ischemic VT in humans causes lesions that initially resemble coagulation necrosis. This is followed by the development of an inflammatory infiltrate and, finally, the development of fibrosis. Repeated application of RF ablation may result in much larger lesions than have been previously reported.
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2/43. Right ventricular cardiomyopathy. A rare and underdiagnosed cause of sudden death in young adults.

    We present an example of right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a very uncommon condition which caused sudden death in an adolescent boy. This case report is used to highlight the pathological features of this rare and poorly understood condition, which is often undiagnosed.
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3/43. First brain dead donor heart transplantation under new legislation in japan.

    The first heart transplantation was carried out in japan successfully, after the brain death and organ transplantation law was settled in 1997. The recipient patient was a 47-year-old man with the dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who had been on a Novacor implantable left ventricular assist system for the previous 4 months. Since the donor hospital was about 200 km from the recipient hospital which took approximately 2 hours for transportation, the total ischemic time was 3 hours and 24 minutes. The post-transplant course was smooth, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 75.
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4/43. Familial extensive idiopathic bilateral pleural fibrosis.

    The authors report three sisters with bilateral isolated apical pleural fibrosis of unknown origin, which did not respond to empirical antituberculosis therapy and oral corticosteroids. The disease evolved in an unrelenting fashion producing pleural fibrosis at the lung bases and leading to the death of two sisters and to lung transplantation in the other one. There was no history of other familial disease or consanguinity. The particular features of these cases and the differences from other reports of apparently cryptogenic pleural fibrosis are outlined.
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5/43. Can migraine damage the inner ear?

    BACKGROUND: Auditory and vestibular symptoms and signs are common in patients with migraine, yet little is known about the pathogenesis of these symptoms and signs. OBJECTIVE: To perform clinicopathological correlation in a patient with migraine, sudden deafness, and delayed endolymphatic hydrops. methods: A patient with long-standing migraine with aura developed sudden hearing loss in the left ear at the age of 50 years and meniere disease on the right side at age 73. At age 76, he had a flurry of sudden drop attacks typical of otolithic crisis. He died of unrelated causes at age 81. The brain and temporal bones were removed approximately 24 hours after death. The cochlea and vestibular end organs were dissected after the surrounding bone was carefully removed. RESULTS: The brain and cerebrovasculature were normal. The left cochlea showed prominent fibrosis consistent with an old infarction. The right inner ear showed hydrops, with relatively good preservation of the hair cells in the cochlea, saccular macule, and cristae of the semicircular canals. However, the utricular macule was denuded of hair cells. CONCLUSIONS: The sudden left-sided deafness likely resulted from ischemia, possibly due to migraine-associated vasospasm. Presumably, the right ear suffered only minimal damage when the patient was 50 years old, but this damage later led to the development of delayed endolymphatic hydrops on the right. Otolithic crises are thought to result from pressure changes across the utricular macule. We speculate that loss of hair cells in the utricular macule resulted from a collapse of the utricular membrane onto the macule.
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6/43. Cardiac death after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for treatment of systemic sclerosis (SSc): no evidence for cyclophosphamide-induced cardiomyopathy.

    In patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) treatment-related mortality after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) appears to be increased as compared to patients with hematological malignancies. In our phase I/II study on ASCT in autoimmune diseases a patient with SSc died on day 2 after ASCT. Here we report the results of the autopsy which revealed advanced pulmonary and cardiac fibrosis as the most probable cause of death. In spite of detailed technical examination before enrollment, the cardiopulmonary function tests did not reflect the advanced stage of the disease. We conclude that in selected patients with SSc, biopsies should be performed to reduce mortality after ASCT.
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ranking = 5
keywords = death
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7/43. Pneumococcal vaccine failure in an hiv-infected patient with fatal pneumococcal sepsis and HCV-related cirrhosis.

    Pneumoccocal vaccination of hiv-positive individuals is recommended to prevent pneumococcal infection. We present a case of a 44-year-old hiv-infected male who came to the emergency room with bacterial pneumonia and sepsis. The patient also had a history of HBV and HCV infection. He expired in the emergency room and blood cultures were positive for streptococcus pneumoniae. The autopsy confirmed the clinical diagnosis and, in addition, hepatitis c-related cirrhosis and splenic abnormalities. The patient had no history of opportunistic infections. His CD4 count 3 months prior to coming to the emergency room was 216 cells/microL with a viral load of 1,270 copies/mL. The patient had received Pneumovax two years before his death. The organism isolated from blood cultures was streptococcus pneumoniae isotype 3, a strain included in Pneumovax. This is a case of pneumococcal vaccine failure with a fatal outcome in a person with an hiv infection and hepatitis c-related liver cirrhosis.
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8/43. The spectrum of intramyocardial small vessel disease associated with sudden death.

    Intramyocardial small vessel abnormalities are not commonly recognized. The best known abnormality is fibromuscular dysplasia involving the sinoatrial or atrioventricular nodal arteries. Small vessel disease has been reported as an isolated cardiac anomaly in individuals with sudden death, and may also be associated with other cardiac conditions including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and mitral valve prolapse. The nature of the association is unknown, and the mechanism causing sudden death is sometimes obscure. We describe pathological changes of the intramyocardial small vessels of three individuals with sudden death. Abnormalities involved small vessels at different levels. In all the cases, the abnormalities were thought to have caused or contributed to the individual's death. The possible mechanisms of this are discussed.
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ranking = 8
keywords = death
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9/43. Sudden death of a case of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy 19 months after successful percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation.

    A 56-year-old male with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy complicated with medically refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure was treated with percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation. The resting left ventricular outflow tract gradient decreased from 70 mmHg to 0 mmHg after the procedure, and clinical symptoms improved dramatically. However, the patient died suddenly 19 months later and autopsy revealed nontransmural myocardial fibrosis with an irregular border in the interventricular septum.
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ranking = 4
keywords = death
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10/43. Sudden death associated with aortitis and fibrosclerosing disease of the conduction system.

    aortitis is known to complicate a number of autoimmune diseases and syphilis. In most patients with autoimmune disease, arthritis is the initial presentation followed by aortic insufficiency. We report two cases of ostensibly healthy, middle-aged men in whom the initial manifestation of aortitis was sudden death. In each patient, there was extension of inflammation from the aorta into the atrioventricular node. These cases emphasize the importance of examining the conducting system in cases of sudden death associated with aortitis and no grossly evident cause of death. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aortitis presenting as sudden death.
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ranking = 8
keywords = death
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