Cases reported "Fibrosis"

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1/11. Fibrovascular polyp of the esophagus in infant.

    A five month female was referred complaining of intermittent vomiting with protrusion of a sausage-like mass through the oral cavity. Esophageal endoscopy and esophagogram revealed a mass in the upper esophagus, which was diagnosed as a fibrovascular polyp. Under general anesthesia, the mass was grasped through the oral cavity with a forcep and ligated and excised at the base, where a stump arose from the posterior wall of the cervical esophagus. The pathology was confirmed as a fibrovascular polyp, which is a rare benign esophageal lesion occurring mostly in adult males, and has not been reported in infancy.
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2/11. autopsy case of alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis treated with corticosteroids and affected by pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus pneumonia.

    A case of the very early phase of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-negative man with alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis treated with steroids is presented. A 40-year-old man with a 10-year history of alcohol abuse was admitted to hospital with jaundice, fever and macrohematuria. Laboratory examinations revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis and a serum bilirubin level of 13.9 mg/dL. The serum bilirubin level rose to 28.5 mg/dL over 1 month. prednisolone administered orally for 10 days produced a slight improvement in the jaundice and fever. After an interval of a week, it was resumed and maintained for 22 days (total dose, 1555 mg) until the patient died of a massive hemorrhage from ruptured vessels of a gastric ulcer. An autopsy disclosed P. carinii pneumonia in the lower lobe of the left lung, cytomegalovirus infection in both lungs and the esophagus, and esophageal candidiasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. carinii pneumonia together with cytomegalovirus infection in an hiv-negative alcoholic patient. The present case suggests that a rare opportunistic infection such as P. carinii pneumonia might be caused by treating cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis with corticosteroids, even if only for a relatively short period.
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3/11. Esophageal ulcer due to ingestion of melted copper.

    We report a patient with esophageal stricture as a result of the accidental swallowing of melted copper by a 49-year-old male. As a result, esophagogastric ulcers developed and left a cicatrical stricture. The patient could only manage to swallow liquid food. radiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract showed marked stricture of the esophagus from the middle thoracic portion to the esophagogastric junction and shortening of the lesser curvature of the stomach. The patient underwent a single-session total gastrectomy, and excision of the thoracic esophagus and construction of anterior thoracic esophagocolic and duodenocolic anastomoses were performed by right thoracotomy and laparotomy, respectively. Macroscopic findings of the surgical specimens showed extensive circular ulcers at the esophagus, and microscopic findings showed deep ulcers extending to the muscle layer with marked fibrosis. The postoperative course was uneventful.
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4/11. esophageal stenosis after coil embolization of an aortopulmonary collateral artery: report of a very unusual cause.

    A 10-year-old boy who had previously undergone surgery for tetralogy of fallot, pulmonary atresia, and ventricular septal defect was admitted with difficulty in swallowing and significant failure to thrive. His history included that he had 2 angiographically detected aberrant pulmonary arteries extending from the descending aorta to the right and left lungs, respectively. Both collaterals had been ligated during the corrective surgery; however, early postoperative evaluation revealed that the vessel that crossed behind the esophagus to the left lung had become recanalized. Coil embolization was performed to occlude this collateral. The patient had begun to develop swallowing difficulties 2 years after the embolization. Esophagography revealed a significant stricture in the middle of the esophagus, just anterior to the location of the coil in the vessel behind. The patient underwent a program of esophageal dilatation. This was successful, and he regained normal swallowing ability. To our knowledge, no similar case of esophageal stenosis has been reported in the English literature. We believe that inflammation surrounding the coiled aberrant artery, presumably caused by injury during the corrective surgery and resulting in hemorrhage, led to fibrosis around the vessel. This fibrosis also involved the adjacent esophageal wall, thus causing progressive stenosis.
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5/11. Granulation and fibrotic esophagus.

    There is very little information in the medical literature on fibrotic esophageal lesions. These lesions do not appear to be malignant, but are recalcitrant to different treatments including removal, and the use of esophageal stents does not discourage the lesion from continuing to grow. The cause of these lesions remains unknown and the reasons for overgrowth in stents are poorly understood. We report on a patient who presented with dysphagia and a recalcitrant fibrotic esophageal lesion.
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6/11. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis with esophageal strictures successfully treated with dilation therapy.

    We report a rare case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis with esophageal strictures. barium esophagogram demonstrated multiple flask-shaped diverticula out of the esophageal wall with comprehensive luminal stenosis involving the proximal 8 cm and distal 4 cm of the esophagus. Chest computed tomographic scan demonstrated round wall thickening and several intramural gas collections of the proximal esophagus. endoscopy revealed a fibrotic stricture and multiple small orifices of pseudodiverticula with mild inflammatory changes. biopsy specimens showed active chronic inflammatory changes of the mucosa with candidiasis. Dysphagia improved dramatically with esophageal dilation. However, the tiny diverticula did not resolve after treatment.
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7/11. Imaging of pediatric mediastinal histoplasmosis.

    histoplasmosis can present a diagnostic dilemma if unusually large masses of lymph nodes, invasive mediastinal fibrosis, or pericarditis result from the infection. These rare, late sequelae are often first suspected from findings on chest radiographs obtained for unrelated reasons. Organisms are not always evident at histologic analysis at this stage. Mediastinal granulomas consist of lobulated masses of enlarged lymph nodes with central caseation, a peripheral thin capsule, and, occasionally, calcification. The mass does not invade or compromise adjacent anatomic structures. Mediastinal fibrosis invades and can seriously compromise the function of the tracheobronchial tree, superior vena cava, pulmonary arteries and veins, and esophagus; its symptoms mimic those of many other disorders. pericarditis is commonly accompanied by pericardial effusion, pneumonia, and adenopathy. Although the radiologic findings of these conditions are nonspecific, they can be used with the clinical findings to suggest a diagnosis. Complications of histoplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients residing in areas endemic to histoplasma capsulatum.
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8/11. Fibrous invasive (Riedel's) thyroiditis with critical response to steroid treatment.

    The Riedel's thyroiditis is an uncommon form of chronic thyroiditis characterized by an invasive fibrosclerosis of the gland, often involving the surrounding tissues. Usually, the only possible treatment is the surgical decompression of the tissues. We describe a case of aggressive Riedel's thyroiditis with severe compression and dislocation of trachea and esophagus. The surgical approach was uneffective, while an "ex juvantibus" steroid treatment, resulted in a dramatic regression of fibrosclerosis and a complete clinical remission. This report points out the possible effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of selective disorders involving increased fibrogenesis.
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9/11. Congenital bilateral agenesis of diaphragm: report of a case.

    Bilateral agenesis of the diaphragm is a rare, life-threatening malformation. Infants with this defect rarely survive to have surgical intervention. We report a 32-week premature female infant who was born to a 36-year-old mother via vaginal delivery. The pregnancy course was complicated by hypertension and polyhydramnios. Cytogenetic study showed a normal 46 XX female karyotype. She had cyanosis, respiratory distress and scaphoid abdomen at birth. A roentgenograph confirmed the diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia. Surgery was performed at 21 h of age. Bilateral agenesis of diaphragm, herniation of abdominal organs and oesophagus and pulmonary hypoplasia were noted. Furthermore, stomach and spleen were adherent to the mediastinum and vertebrae. The patient developed hypotension and persistent hypoxaemia and expired at age of 26 h. autopsy revealed bilateral agenesis of diaphragm, hypoplasia of lungs, and pancreas fibrosis with mild hypoplasia of islets of langerhans. CONCLUSION: Bilateral agenesis of diaphragm associated with pancreas fibrosis is a rare entity, and its clinical significance needs further investigation.
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10/11. Benign esophageal stricture caused by diffuse severe esophagitis presenting as ascending fibrosis: report of a case.

    A 46-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital for treatment of an esophageal stricture. Esophageal cancer was suspected after detailed investigations, and a right transthoracic esophagectomy was performed. The resected specimen showed only nonspecific esophagitis with severe fibrous thickening in the submucosa, but no evidence of malignancy. Between 1906 and 1993, only 19 similar cases of benign esophageal strictures with fibrous thickening, excluding congenital and iatrogenic strictures, have been reported in japan. These lesions occurred in the middle to lower third of the esophagus in 15 of 19 cases (78.9%), and 8 of the 19 patients (42.1%) were aged between 30 and 50 years. The interval between onset and hospital admission was short, being less than 1 year in 8 of the 12 patients for whom this information was available. Our patient demonstrated a disorder resembling the diffuse severe esophagitis described by Roth in 1974.
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