Cases reported "Fibrosis"

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1/52. Complete occlusion of the anterior capsular opening after intact capsulorhexis: clinicopathologic correlation.

    PURPOSE: To report histopathologic findings of capsule contraction syndrome with complete occlusion of the capsulorhexis opening. methods: Case report. In an 81-year-old woman, a complete occlusion of the anterior capsulorhexis opening developed 2 months after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. We surgically removed the contracted anterior capsule and analyzed the membrane by standard light microscopy and actin immunohistology. RESULTS: light microscopic analysis of the membrane showed fibrous tissue subcapsularly with metaplastic lens epithelial cells. The contracted capsulorhexis opening was filled completely with proliferated actin-positive lens epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Complete occlusion of the capsulorhexis opening can be attributed to excessive shrinkage of the capsule, probably caused by actin filaments found in the residual lens epithelial cells together with weak zonular support, and to the occlusion of the remaining central defect by massive proliferation of metaplastic lens epithelial cells.
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2/52. Incising the thick retrolental fibrovascular tissue with a hooked sclerotome in persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.

    A technique for incising thick retrolental fibrovascular tissue and extensive cyclitic membrane is reported in a case of anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. A membranectomy was performed in a 1-month-old post-lensectomy baby via a limbal approach. A sclerotome tip was hooked to cut through an extremely thick fibrovascular tissue by rotating the sclerotome by its grip. Sutherland microscissors (Grieshaber, switzerland) and a vitrectomy cutter were used for further membranectomy. The baby was followed-up until age 18 months. A total of 3 membranectomy sessions were required because of rapid cyclitic membrane formation, severe centripetal retraction of the membrane on the ciliary processes, and posterior synechia. Thorough membranectomy and cutting the iris edge maintained a clear pupillary area during the 13-month postoperative period. Extremely thick retrolental fibrovascular tissue is a challenging condition that can be dealt with by delicate instrumentation.
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ranking = 3.5
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3/52. choroideremia associated with subretinal neovascular membrane.

    PURPOSE: To report two Japanese patients with choroideremia, one male and one heterozygous female, who developed subretinal neovascular membrane and/or subretinal fibrosis in the intermediate stage of the disease, and, in addition, to describe marked clinical manifestation in a heterozygous carrier female. METHOD: Two patients were examined by slip-lamp biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy and other ophthalmoloscopic examinations. RESULTS: Two cases showed moderately advanced ophthalmoscopic and functional abnormalitities compatible with choroideremia, and in addition, subretinal lesion in the fovea and/or midperiphery. CONCLUSION: The intermediate stage of choroideremia may occasionally be complicated with choroidal neovascular membrane in the fovea, the midperiphery, or both, which resolves spontaneously and results in subretinal fibrous scarring. The occurrence of this complication in the fovea leads to episodic central visual loss, while midperipheral lesion may remain unrecognized.
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ranking = 3
keywords = membrane
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4/52. Can migraine damage the inner ear?

    BACKGROUND: Auditory and vestibular symptoms and signs are common in patients with migraine, yet little is known about the pathogenesis of these symptoms and signs. OBJECTIVE: To perform clinicopathological correlation in a patient with migraine, sudden deafness, and delayed endolymphatic hydrops. methods: A patient with long-standing migraine with aura developed sudden hearing loss in the left ear at the age of 50 years and meniere disease on the right side at age 73. At age 76, he had a flurry of sudden drop attacks typical of otolithic crisis. He died of unrelated causes at age 81. The brain and temporal bones were removed approximately 24 hours after death. The cochlea and vestibular end organs were dissected after the surrounding bone was carefully removed. RESULTS: The brain and cerebrovasculature were normal. The left cochlea showed prominent fibrosis consistent with an old infarction. The right inner ear showed hydrops, with relatively good preservation of the hair cells in the cochlea, saccular macule, and cristae of the semicircular canals. However, the utricular macule was denuded of hair cells. CONCLUSIONS: The sudden left-sided deafness likely resulted from ischemia, possibly due to migraine-associated vasospasm. Presumably, the right ear suffered only minimal damage when the patient was 50 years old, but this damage later led to the development of delayed endolymphatic hydrops on the right. Otolithic crises are thought to result from pressure changes across the utricular macule. We speculate that loss of hair cells in the utricular macule resulted from a collapse of the utricular membrane onto the macule.
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5/52. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy pattern in age-related macular degeneration: a clinicopathologic correlation.

    PURPOSE: To report the histopathologic features of surgically removed submacular tissue from an elderly patient with a pattern of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy on indocyanine green angiography. methods: Clinical examination including fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography and light microscopy of surgical specimen. RESULTS: A thick yellow proteinaceous subretinal fluid was seen in the right macula of an 81-year-old white man. fluorescein angiography indicated progressive leakage from undetermined source apart from a few focal hyperfluorescent points. indocyanine green angiography showed several polyps as well as dilated choroidal vessels in the macula and along the superior temporal arcade. A large plaque was visualized in the late phase. Microscopically, the specimen consisted of a thick fibrovascular membrane located on the choroidal side of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The RPE layer was discontinuous whereas on its choroidal side an almost intact layer of diffuse drusen was observed. A group of dilated thin-walled vessels were found that appeared to be saccular on serial sections. Some of these were located almost immediately under the diffuse drusen. CONCLUSION: Histologic examination of submacular tissue removed from an eye with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy showed several aneurysmal dilatations located directly under diffuse drusen within a sub-RPE, intra-Bruch's fibrovascular membrane.
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6/52. Clinicopathological correlation in exudative age-related macular degeneration: recurrent choroidal neovascularization.

    PURPOSE: To report the pathology of surgically removed submacular tissue in recurrent choroidal neovascularization after laser photocoagulation of classic choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration. methods: A recurrent subfoveal choroidal neovascular membrane was surgically removed in two patients. The recurrence was identified as a classic membrane on fluorescein angiography at the foveal border of the laser scar. A net was visualized in the early venous phase of the indocyanine green angiogram, with associated late hyperfluorescence. Both patients had undergone laser photocoagulation for a classic interpapillomacular choroidal neovascular membrane about 1 1/2 years earlier. The specimens were serially sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Masson trichrome and phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin. RESULTS: The two specimens consisted of subretinal fibrovascular tissue with fibrin exudation. Fibrovascular tissue bordered subretinal fibrous tissue adherent to Bruch's membrane and remnants of the choroid in one patient. The fibrovascular portion most likely corresponded to the recurrence, whereas the fibrous portion represented the original membrane, being obliterated after photocoagulation. Some peripapillary tissue was additionally removed in the other patient. The latter lesion was invisible on fluorescein angiography but stained in the late phase of indocyanine green angiography and corresponded histopathologically to poorly vascularized intra-Bruch's fibrovascular tissue. Granular deposits, periodic acid-Schiff positive and metachromatically purple on Masson trichrome stain, representing diffuse drusen (basal laminar/linear deposits), were identified in the three specimens. CONCLUSION: A subretinal fibrovascular membrane corresponded with the classic recurrent choroidal neovascularization.
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ranking = 3
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7/52. Fibrous congenital iris membranes with pupillary distortion.

    BACKGROUND: In 1986 Cibis and associates described 2 children with a new type of congenital pupillary-iris-lens membrane with goniodysgenesis that was unilateral, sporadic, and progressive. These membranes were different from the common congenital pupillary strands that extend from 1 portion of the iris collarette to another or from the iris collarette to a focal opacity on the anterior lens surface. They also differed from the stationary congenital hypertrophic pupillary membranes that partially occlude the pupil, originating from multiple sites on the iris collarette, but not attaching directly to the lens. CASE MATERIAL: The present report is an account of 7 additional infants with congenital iris membranes, similar to those reported by Cibis and associates, which caused pupillary distortion and were variably associated with adhesions to the lens, goniodysgenesis, and progressive occlusion or seclusion of the pupil. Six of the 7 patients required surgery to open their pupils for visual purposes or to abort angle closure glaucoma. A remarkable finding was that the lenses in the area of the newly created pupils were clear, allowing an unobstructed view of normal fundi. CONCLUSION: This type of fibrous congenital iris membrane is important to recognize because of its impact on vision and its tendency to progress toward pupillary occlusion. Timely surgical intervention can abort this progressive course and allow vision to be preserved.
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ranking = 4.5
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8/52. Atypical decubital fibroplasia with unusual histology.

    A case of atypical decubital fibroplasia with unusual histology arising in the buttock of a 68-year-old bed-ridden male in presented. The lesion measuring 5.4 cm in greatest dimension was histologically characterized by a proliferation of fibroblasts with oval to spindle nuclei and dense fibrous stroma with focal hyalinization and calcification. Ganglion-like fibroblastic cells and multinucleated giant cells of osteoclast type were also observed. There were numerous elastic fibers within and adjacent to the proliferating stromal cells. The proliferating stromal cells were positive for vimentin and collagen type iv but negative for CAM 5.2, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, muscle actin, HHF35, S-100 protein and CD34. Ultrastructurally, they were of a fibroblastic nature. The hypercellularity, lack of zones of fibrinoid necrosis, lack of lobulation and the presence of multinucleated giant cells were different from the originally described lesion. This condition represents a variant of atypical decubital fibroplasia. Pathogenic factors of this lesion are considered to be chronically repeated pressure and associated intermittent ischemia. The recognition of the lesion and its distinction from a sarcoma is essential.
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9/52. A case of Coats' disease with a peeling of premacular fibrosis after photocoagulation.

    We report a 26-year-old man with Coats' disease associated with premacular fibrosis. As an initial treatment, the peripheral exduative area was treated with argon laser photocoagulation. Six weeks later, the premacular fibrosis was peeled off and the posterior vitreous membrane was also detached. The patient's visual acuity improved to 20/20. We also observed a change of the vitreous component before and after the treatment that was similar to posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). This is the first reported case in which a distinct vitreous change was observed after premacular fibrosis peeling in Coat's disease.
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keywords = membrane
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10/52. Vascular occlusion in the endolymphatic sac in Meniere's disease.

    In 2 patients with severe Meniere's disease (MD), there was histologic evidence of occlusion of the vein of the vestibular aqueduct (VVA). This finding coincided with total or partial occlusion of numerous small vessels around the endolymphatic sac (ES), flattening of epithelium, extensive perisaccular fibrosis, and signs of new bone formation. Ultrastructural analysis of the occluding material showed foci with dense connective tissue, calcification, lipid deposits, and layers of basement membrane, sometimes concentrically arranged. The exact nature of the occluding material was unknown. In another 2 MD patients, the VVA was not visualized, and the ES vessels showed no signs of occlusion. Seven controls with acoustic schwannoma or meningioma had normal vasculature. The presence of vascular impairment in the ES in MD patients indicated that altered hemodynamics may contribute to the pathogenesis of endolymphatic hydrops and MD.
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