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1/9. Imaging of McCune-Albright syndrome using bone single photon emission computed tomography.

    McCune-Albright syndrome is a rare disorder caused by a somatic, constitutively activating mutation in the gene (GNAS1) encoding the subunit of the signal transducing guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein). The condition is characterized by polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, cafe-au-lait pigmentation and multiple endocrine hyperfunction, most commonly gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty in girls. Our patient, a 16-year-old male, with radiologically confirmed polyostotic fibrous dysplasia in cranium, thoracic and pelvic girdles, spine and extremities was studied using planar 99mTc-hydroxymethyldiphosphonate bone scintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography. Using bone scintigraphy, an unusually extensive and asymmetric fibrous dysplasia was observed in the cranium, face, ribs, femur, humerus, ulna, tibia and the vertebral column, all on the left side. The whole body scan revealed only a few foci on the right side. Single photon emission computed tomography demonstrated extensive unilateral involvement in the base of the skull, facial bones, maxilla and mandible. All the lesions reached only the midline. These findings formed the basis of further treatment, eg. reconstructive surgery of facial asymmetry. CONCLUSION: McCune-Albright syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis when interpreting extensive unilateral predominance in paediatric bone scans.
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2/9. McCune Albright syndrome and hypophosphatemic rickets.

    A 4 year-old girl had coxa vara, tibial bowing and hyperpigmented macules. The x-ray showed polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and evidence of rickets. Biochemical investigations confirmed hyperphosphaturic hypophosphatemic rickets. The literature has been reviewed.
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3/9. Bone mineral density response to long-term bisphosphonate therapy in fibrous dysplasia.

    fibrous dysplasia of bone is a rare disease related to a genetic mutation in which bone formation at osseous sites is altered. In the last few years, bisphosphonates have become one of the choice drugs to treat this disease. A 26-yr-old woman presented after 6 wk of spontaneous right leg pain owing to a fissure fracture of the right femoral neck. She reported precocious puberty at the age of 2, with diagnosis of McCune-Albright syndrome. Radioisotope bone scanning, radiographic, biochemical, and densitometric studies were performed. Treatment with bisphosphonates was started because bone turnover biochemical markers were abnormal. Oral olpadronate followed by iv pamidronate substantially decreased bone resorption. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total skeleton and subareas was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) throughout the 5 yr of treatment. At the end of this period, BMD of the total skeleton had increased 6.2%. However, BMD of the areas most affected by fibrous dysplasia, the legs and pelvis, had increased 12.7 and 11%, respectively. Region of interest analysis of individual bones of the legs performed with the total skeleton scan revealed that BMD of the areas most affected by fibrous dysplasia was lower than that of the less affected contralateral bones. During the first 3 yr, treatment with bisphosphonates substantially increased BMD of the right femur and tibia (22 and 28%, respectively). After that, values seemed to stabilize. DXA evaluation of the total skeleton and its subareas was useful to evaluate the efficacy of bisphosphonate treatment. Moreover, the plateau observed in BMD values after 3 yr of treatment suggests that treatment could have been discontinued when the densitometric values stabilized.
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4/9. Immunoexpression of neurofibromin, S-100 protein, and leu-7 and mutation analysis of the NF1 gene at codon 1423 in osteofibrous dysplasia.

    The NF1 (neurofibromatosis type 1, or von Recklinghausen disease) gene, is a tumor-suppressor gene, and its product, neurofibromin, down-regulates ras protein by its guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (GAP)-related domain. Osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) is characterized by fibroblast-like spindle cells and osseous tissue and is generally seen in the tibia or fibula during childhood. The precise nature of OFD remains controversial. Cosegregations of OFD and NF1 have been reported, and it has been surmised that OFD is associated with the NF1 gene. We studied the expressions of NF1 gene product (neurofibromin) and so-called Schwann cell markers (S-100 protein, Leu-7) in 17 cases of OFD immunohistochemically. Ten cases of fibrous dysplasia (FD) were also used for the purpose of comparison. Five OFD and 7 FD cases were analyzed for NF1 gene mutation at codon 1423, which is a GAP-related domain, by single-strand conformation polymorphism. Fibroblast-like cells of OFD showed the expression of neurofibromin (5 of 17), S-100 protein (9 of 17), and Leu-7 (5 of 17), and those of FD did not show these expressions, with the exception of 1 case that showed Leu-7 expression. Regarding the OFD cases, significant correspondence was found between cases showing expression of neurofibromin and S-100 protein, between cases showing expression of neurofibromin and Leu-7, and between cases showing expression of S-100 protein and Leu-7 (P < .01). NF1 gene mutation at codon 1423 was not detected in either the OFD (0 of 5) or FD (0 of 7) cases. These results seem to suggest the possible involvement of neurofibromin in the development of OFD, which is associated with the expression of Schwann cell markers (S-100 protein and Leu-7). Furthermore, NF1 gene mutation at codon 1423 did not seem to be related to OFD.
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5/9. McCune-Albright syndrome with multiple bilateral cafe au lait spots.

    A 7-week-old infant developed hyperpigmented lesions at 5 days of age that gradually progressed to sharply demarcated, medium-brown macules of unusual configuration involving the neck, trunk, buttocks, upper arms, and right upper thigh. A biopsy specimen of a representative lesion showed changes of epidermal melanosis consistent with cafe au lait spot. At age 15 months the patient developed a limp. Roentgenographic evaluation showed widespread, bilateral changes of fibrous dysplasia, most severe in the right pelvis, femur, and tibia. At the present time he has no evidence of precocious puberty or other endocrinopathies. Despite the absence of endocrine abnormalities, these findings are consistent with a diagnosis of McCune-Albright syndrome with extensive bony and cutaneous lesions.
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6/9. Osteogenic sarcoma and soft tissue myxoma in a patient with fibrous dysplasia and hemoglobins JBaltimore and S.

    A 41-year-old man with recognized polyostotic fibrous dysplasia since late childhood developed fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma in the left tibia. Four months after the initial diagnosis, an intramuscular myxoma was discovered in the left thigh. Twenty years previously he had been found to be heterozygous for hemoglobins JBaltimore and S. Malignant transformation in fibrous dysplasia is unusual and may be associated in some individuals with prior irradiation. Soft tissue myxomas associated with fibrous dysplasia are even rarer. To the best of the authors' knowledge the occurrence of both of these lesions in a patient with fibrous dysplasia has been reported only once before. patients with both fibrous dysplasia and myxomas may be at greater risk for malignant transformation than are individuals with only one of these lesions. There is no well-recognized association between hemoglobinopathies and either fibrous dysplasia or bone tumors. It is therefore probable that the rare constellation of findings is in this patient a stochastic event.
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7/9. Scintigraphic evaluation of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia.

    Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive imaging modality for detecting early lesions and polyostotic involvement in fibrous dysplasia. Common findings include multiple areas of focal uptake that are often unilateral and typically involve the ribs, tibia, femur, and craniofacial bones. A knowledge of various skeletal manifestations of fibrous dysplasia is helpful to distinguish it from Paget's disease, osteoblastic metastasis, and fractures. Several recent cases representing varying involvement of fibrous dysplasia are presented and the literature is reviewed.
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8/9. osteosarcoma, fibrous dysplasia, and a chromosomal abnormality in a 3-year-old child.

    osteosarcoma is a type of malignant bone tumor that is rare among children less than five years old. This report describes a 3-year-old boy with osteosarcoma of the right proximal femur and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia of the right femur and tibia. After hemipelvectomy, histologic examination of the amputated limb disclosed that the osteosarcoma had developed in a focus of fibrous dysplasia. cytogenetic analysis of the patient's blood lymphocytes revealed a 4q-/7p translocation in all cells. The patient's mother had an identical translocation but did not have a history of osteosarcoma or evidence of fibrous dysplasia. The chromosomal abnormality and the developmental osseous disorder may have predisposed this patient to developing osteosarcoma at an exceptionally young age.
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9/9. An extensive type of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia.

    The case describes an 11-year-old girl affected by an unusually extensive type of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. The cranium and face and both femurs, tibias, and fibulas were extensively and almost symmetrically involved. Tubulation deformities were noted in the metacarpals and middle phalanges of both hands. These findings appear to represent a very severe manifestation of the disease, as polyostotic fibrous dysplasia is known to be predominantly unilateral. The patient had endocrine dysfunction consistent with McCune-Albright syndrome. Radiological work-up included plain radiography of the skeleton and CT, MR imaging, and MR angiography of the cranium.
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