Cases reported "Fistula"

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1/94. Esophagoaortic perforation by foreign body (coin) causing sudden death in a 3-year-old child.

    We report an extremely unusual consequence to foreign body ingestion in a case of a 3-year-old boy who died suddenly and at autopsy was found to have an esophagoaortic fistula. This fistula was caused by a coin which lodged posteriorly and eroded through the esophagus into the aorta. Serious complications following foreign body ingestion are rare and include stricture formation, intramural abscess, and the formation of fistula tracts. This case illustrates the potentially unpredictable behavior of impacted foreign bodies. The child's parents were initially suspected of child abuse based on the terminal hemoptysis.
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keywords = esophagus
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2/94. Spontaneous closure of a large tracheal fistula due to descending necrotizing mediastinitis.

    We present a case of a 77-year-old man who had a large tracheal fistula due to descending necrotizing mediastinitis. He underwent long-term care with a respirator after mediastinal drainage operations. The fistula was covered spontaneously with the anterior wall of the esophagus 1.5 months postoperatively.
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keywords = esophagus
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3/94. Fatal hemorrhage complicating carcinoma of the esophagus. Report of four cases.

    Four cases of esophageal carcinoma complicated by fatal hemorrhage are reported. All four patients had recently completed radiation therapy. An aortoesophageal fistula was present in two cases; fibrinoid necrosis of the esophageal arteries was present in the other two. The esophageal tumor was localized in two cases and had disappeared in one case. In one patient it had metastasized widely. Ninety-nine other reports of esophageal cancer and fatal hemorrhage are reviewed from the literature. Aortoesophageal fistula was the cause of hemorrhage in 78 cases. Occlusion of the vasa vasorum by thrombosis, inflammation, neoplastic cells or radiation injury appears to be the cause of aortic necrosis and fistula formation. Prompt surgical approach, if possible, should be used to control hemorrhage, as the primary tumor may be localized to the esophagus only.
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ranking = 5
keywords = esophagus
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4/94. Preexisting gastric carcinoid in a gastro-omental free flap.

    The authors present a 72-year-old man with an extensive medical history including stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the right pyriform sinus diagnosed approximately 10 years before this report. They were asked to evaluate the patient for esophageal reconstruction after local radiation had led to benign stricture of his esophagus and subsequent development of a large, draining esophagocutaneous fistula. A gastro-omental free flap reconstruction of the esophagus and overlying skin defect was complicated by the intraoperative diagnosis of gastric carcinoid obtained from several polyps noticed on the gastric mucosa on routine inspection. This case report signifies the importance of close inspection of all free tissue transfers before interposition. Failure to do so could result in disastrous outcomes.
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ranking = 2
keywords = esophagus
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5/94. Esophagopericardial fistula attributed to a barogenic rupture of the esophagus. Report of a case and review of the literature.

    In this case we describe a fatal condition of esophagopericardial fistula secondary to barogenic rupture of the esophagus. The review of the literature disclosed only one fatal case (reported in 1968) of esophagopericardial fistula attributed to barogenic rupture of the esophagus. early diagnosis and adequate treatment including pericardiocentesis along with intermittent drainage of the pericardium, full-course antibiotic therapy and a timely, well-planned surgical intervention will substantially improve the prognosis in this type of pathology. patients similar to our case should be treated with either surgical bipolar esophageal exclusion (conservative disconnection) or esophagectomy combined with large drainage of the pericardial and mediastinal spaces. This case report reinforces the complexity of the diagnosis, and perhaps the need for clinical awareness and the inclusion of this entity in a differential diagnosis.
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ranking = 6
keywords = esophagus
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6/94. Arterial-esophageal fistula: a complication of nasogastric tube placement after lumbar spine surgery: a case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case of arterial-esophageal fistula related to nasogastric tube placement in a 13-year-old girl after surgical correction of her progressive congenital lumbar kyphosis is presented. OBJECTIVES: This case report illustrates the importance of early recognition of "sentinel" hematemesis before massive hemorrhage, as this may allow for timely surgical intervention to prevent fatal exsanguination. The proposed pathogenesis of the arterial-esophageal fistula in the reported patient is discussed. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although arterial-esophageal fistula formation has been recognized as an unusual complication of prolonged nasogastric intubation, to the authors' knowledge, this is the only case that illustrates an association of this complication with short-term nasogastric tube placement. methods: A 13-year-old girl was evaluated for progressive congenital lumbar kyphosis. Failure of segmentation and an anterior bar at L4-L5 was diagnosed when the patient was 7 years of age. At that time, she showed 28 degrees of kyphosis from L3 to L5. Because of her cardiopulmonary status at the time, she was deemed not to be a candidate for a corrective surgical procedure and followed conservatively until the age of 13 years. At that time, her gibbus deformity was 56 degrees from L3 to L5. She had significant ventral sagittal imbalance, which in combination with her cardiopulmonary abnormalities created difficulty with ambulation. Her preoperative neurologic examination was within normal limits. The patient had an extensive history of congenital cyanotic cardiopulmonary disease. She was born with pulmonary atresia, right-sided aortic arch with mirror image branching, a large coronary sinus type atrial septal defect, and a large ventricular septal defect. She had history of multiple surgical procedures for correction of her congenital cardiopulmonary abnormalities. The patient underwent posterior L3 and L5 wedge pedicle reduction osteotomies with posterior instrumentation and fusion from L2 to S1 using pedicle screw segmental fixation. A nasogastric tube was placed after surgery. On postoperative day 7, profuse bleeding from the patient's mouth and nose developed, which subsequently ceased. Shortly afterward, she became hypotensive and tachycardic. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a large amount of blood in her stomach without an active source. Cardiac arrest then developed, and she could not be resuscitated. The autopsy findings were consistent with an arterial-esophageal fistula. RESULTS: In the reported patient, the anomalous aortic arch system provided direct contact between the aorta and the esophagus. Dense fibrous adhesions between the aorta and esophagus resulting from multiple previous thoracic surgeries also may have facilitated the development of the fistula by the nasogastric tube in this patient. CONCLUSIONS: patients with congenital cardiac abnormalities frequently also have congenital spinal deformities. These patients may undergo spinal correction procedures requiring nasogastric intubation. Increased awareness of arterial-esophageal fistula among the spine surgery community may enhance early recognition and treatment of this potentially lethal condition.
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ranking = 2
keywords = esophagus
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7/94. Carotidoesophageal fistula complicating carcinoma of the esophagus: report of a case.

    A case of carotidoesophageal fistula complicating carcinoma of the esophagus is reported for the first time in iran. review of the literature up to 1972 revealed four previous reports of this complication and only 92 reported cases of aortoesophageal fistula due to carcinoma of the esophagus.
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ranking = 6
keywords = esophagus
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8/94. Arterioesophageal fistula: a rare complication of retroesophageal subclavian arteries.

    Formation of a fistula between a retroesophageal subclavian artery and the esophagus is a rare cause of hematemesis that is usually fatal. Several etiologies have been described. The purpose of this report is to describe a case involving successful surgical repair of an arterioesophageal fistula induced by prolonged nasogastric intubation. A preoperative CT scan under emergency conditions allowed tentative diagnosis. Arteriography in the operating room confirmed the presence of a fistula and also allowed temporary hemostasis by tamponade. On the basis of a review of the literature, this case demonstrates the importance of screening patients requiring prolonged nasogastric intubation to rule out the possibility of an aberrant aortic arch system.
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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9/94. Esophagopleural fistula after pneumonectomy.

    rupture of the esophagus into the space left after pneumonectomy is a rare and often fatal complication. Esophagopleural fistulas occurred in three patients following pneumonectomy. After previous methods failed, two patients were successfully treated by using a one-stage procedure which included (1) suture closure of the fistula, (2) buttressing the repair with a viable, pedicled, two-rib intercostal-muscle flap, and (3) performing an extensive thoracoplasty with a continuous drip infusion of neomycin. Such a procedure offers the maximum opportunity for successful treatment of this catastrophic lesion.
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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10/94. A new variant of esophageal atresia with distal tracheo-antral fistula associated with congenital intrathoracic stomach and situs inversus.

    esophageal atresia (EA) with distal tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is the most common anatomic pattern within congenital anomalies of the esophagus. Also, more than 50% of the infants with esophageal atresia have other congenital malformations. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of EA with distal tracheo-antral fistula associated with congenital intrathoracic stomach and situs inversus (SI).
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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