Cases reported "Fistula"

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1/23. Management of tension pneumatocele with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

    We report the successful application of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in a patient with tension pneumatocele (TP). The proposed check-valve mechanism for the development of pneumatoceles predicts that positive-pressure ventilation could lead to distension of these airspaces and formation of TPs. Therefore, high-frequency ventilation could be more applicable in conditions, such as massive air leak due to bronchopleural fistula, that are difficult to manage by conventional ventilator modes.
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2/23. Atrio-esophageal fistula as a complication of percutaneous transcatheter ablation of atrial fibrillation.

    BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation is becoming widely practiced. methods AND RESULTS: Two patients undergoing circumferential pulmonary vein ablation for atrial fibrillation in different centers developed symptoms compatible with endocarditis 3 to 5 days after the procedure. Their clinical condition deteriorated rapidly, and both suffered multiple gaseous and/or septic embolic events causing cerebral and myocardial damage. One patient survived after emergency cardiac and esophageal surgery; the other died of extensive systemic embolization. An atrio-esophageal fistula was identified in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: Atrio-esophageal fistulas can occur after catheter ablation in the posterior wall of the left atrium. This diagnosis should be excluded in any patient with symptoms or signs of endocarditis after left atrial ablation, and expeditious cardiac surgery is critical if the diagnosis is confirmed. Lower power and temperature settings for applications of radiofrequency energy along the posterior left atrial wall may prevent further cases of fistula formation.
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3/23. Coronary artery to the left atrial fistula after resection of atrial appendages.

    We report the case of a fistula formation between the left circumflex coronary artery draining into the left atrium as a complication of radiofrequency cardio-ablation and resection of the atrial appendages. This complication was diagnosed with the use of transesophageal echocardiography and was subsequently confirmed on coronary angiography.
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4/23. Lobar bronchial blockade in bronchopleural fistula.

    A 59-yr-old man with bullous lung disease developed a refractory bronchopleural fistula involving the right upper lobe. Despite independent lung and high-frequency jet ventilation, a large air leak persisted. Following the introduction of a bronchial blocker into the right upper lobe bronchus via the tracheal lumen of a left-sided endobronchial tube, oxygenation and ventilation improved, and the airleak was reduced by 90%. The presence of pneumonia led to an inexorably downhill course with death from overwhelming sepsis.
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5/23. Endobronchial closure of a postpneumonectomy bronchopleural fistula.

    Successful permanent endobronchial closure of a serious postpneumonectomy bronchopleural fistula is reported in a patient with a delayed diagnosis of mycobacterium fortuitum-cheloni infection. Increasing experience, improved plugging agents, and a review of the literature suggest that in selected patients, this procedure can avoid complex repeat operations and reverse life-threatening situations. Although atypical mycobacterial infections occur with infrequency, they are difficult to treat and may lead, as in this patient, to a misdiagnosis. Operations on granulomatous tissues are prone to heal poorly, thus inviting tissue breakdown and chronic fistulas.
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6/23. Renoduodenal fistula after renal tumor ablation with radiofrequency.

    PURPOSE: To report a renoduodenal fistula after renal tumor ablation with radiofrequency (RFA). methods: A 1-inch right anterior renal cell carcinoma was subjected to percutaneous RFA under sedation. We used a 14-gauge probe guided by ultrasonographic images in real time. RESULTS: On the fifth day the computerized tomography with double contrasts showed a fistula between the pelvis and the duodenum. CONCLUSIONS: A major concern regarding this approach relates to the anterior renal tumor and the guided images during the procedure. To our knowledge, there has never been any report of renoduodenal fistula after RFA.
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7/23. Spontaneous drainage of paravalvular abscess diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography.

    Paravalvular abscesses, which occur in up to 30% of cases of native valve endocarditis, are being detected with increasing frequency with the use of transesophageal echocardiography. Abscesses of the mitral aortic intervalvular fibrosa have been described but only in association with native or prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis. We describe a patient with native mitral valve endocarditis complicated by an abscess in the fibrosa. A 51-year-old diabetic man presented with staphylococcus aureus mitral valve endocarditis. A transesophageal echocardiographic study done 8 days after admission revealed two large masses at the base of the anterior mitral leaflet with extension into the fibrosa consistent with a paravalvular abscess that was not detected by precordial echocardiography. A repeat transesophageal echocardiographic study done 20 days after admission showed spontaneous drainage of the abscess and a subsequent fistula between the left atrium and left ventricle. This case highlights the important role that transesophageal echocardiography has in suspected and known cases of endocarditis. Its major advantage of delineating posterior cardiac structures allowed accurate diagnosis and serial evaluation of this previously unreported complication of endocarditis.
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8/23. Management of malignant air leak in a child with a neonatal high-frequency oscillatory ventilator.

    A 10-year-old, 36-kg child with a malignant air leak who failed conventional mechanical ventilation and high-frequency jet ventilation was successfully treated with a neonatal high-frequency oscillatory ventilator for 31 days. Since the air leak resolved with minimal hemodynamic compromise, this technique may have application in the management of respiratory failure and air leak in the older and larger child for prolonged periods of time.
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9/23. Combined vesicovaginal-ureterovaginal fistulas associated with a vaginal foreign body.

    A case is presented of vesicovaginal-ureterovaginal fistulas associated with a neglected vaginal foreign body. The patient complained of a foul-smelling vaginal discharge and was found to have a 4-cm hard vaginal mass on examination. Urinary incontinence developed subsequently. Examination under anesthesia was performed, and an aerosol deodorant cap was operatively removed from her posterior vagina/perirectal space. Subsequent work-up demonstrated the presence of both a vesicovaginal fistula and a right ureterovaginal fistula. The patient underwent a combined vaginal repair of the vesicovaginal fistula and abdominal ureteroneocystostomy. The frequency, types, etiology, and treatment of genitourinary fistulas are reviewed with particular attention to those associated with a vaginal foreign body.
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10/23. Ureteroarterial fistula: case report and review of literature.

    A fistula developed between the left common iliac artery and the distal left ureter of an 83-year-old woman who had undergone aortofemoral bypass grafting many years previously and in whom a Double-J stent was in place for 3 weeks while she was awaiting extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Exsanguinating hemorrhage into the urinary tract necessitated emergency nephrectomy and vascular repair. Although these measures were successful temporarily, the patient died 6 weeks later of repeat myocardial infarction and acute renal failure. The increasing frequency of ureteral stent use and of an operation on the iliac arteries is expected to increase the frequency of these potentially catastrophic fistulas.
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