Cases reported "Flushing"

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1/4. Harlequin syndrome: the sudden onset of unilateral flushing and sweating.

    Facial flushing and sweating were investigated in five patients who complained of the sudden onset of unilateral facial flushing in hot weather or when exercising vigorously. One patient probably suffered a brainstem infarct at the time that the unilateral flush was first noticed, and was left with a subtle Horner's syndrome on the side opposite to the flush. The other four had no other neurological symptoms and no ocular signs of Horner's syndrome. Thermal and emotional flushing and sweating were found to be impaired on the non-flushing side of the forehead in all five patients whereas gustatory sweating and flushing were increased on that side in four of the five patients, a combination of signs indicating a deficit of the second sympathetic neuron at the level of the third thoracic segment. CT and MRI of this area failed to disclose a structural lesion but latency from stimulation of the motor cortex and thoracic spinal cord to the third intercostal muscle was delayed on the non-flushing side in one patient. The complaint of unilateral flushing and sweating was abolished in one patient by ipsilateral stellate ganglionectomy. The unilateral facial flushing and sweating induced by heat in all five patients was thus a normal or excessive response by an intact sympathetic pathway, the other side failing to respond because of a sympathetic deficit. The onset in the four cases of peripheral origin followed strenuous exertion, which suggested that an anterior radicular artery may have become occluded at the third thoracic segment during torsion of the thoracic spine.
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2/4. hypertension after brain injury: case report.

    hypertension after brain injury requires comprehensive evaluation and management. Focal brain injury to centers of blood pressure regulation, high levels of circulating catecholamines from generalized trauma or intracranial lesions, increased intracranial pressure, pheochromocytomas unmasked after trauma, and occult spinal cord injury with hyperreflexia represent possible causes of hypertension after brain injury. This case of a brain-injured patient who had episodes of hypertension and diaphoresis with catecholamine elevations in plasma and urine, and evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction, demonstrates the importance of a thorough neuroendocrine evaluation in brain-injured patients with hypertension. When high levels of catecholamines are found, without further evidence of a pheochromocytoma, treatment with a beta blocker is appropriate.
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3/4. Unilateral loss of facial flushing and sweating with contralateral anhidrosis: harlequin syndrome or Adie's syndrome?

    A 45-year-old woman presented with a 10 year history of asymmetrical facial flushing and sweating after exertion or in hot weather. During these episodes the right side of her face remained dry and white, while the left side normally flushed. sweating was impaired on the left side in the limbs and trunk. She also had areflexia in the lower limbs and slow pupillary reactions to light and darkness, as seen in Adie's syndrome. The topography of the sweating disorder suggested that the lesion involved the sympathetic pathways at the level of spinal cord. The relationship with the harlequin syndrome and related disorders is discussed.
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4/4. Anaphylactoid reaction to maltose 5% solution during spinal anaesthesia.

    PURPOSE: A rare case of an anaphylactoid reaction to maltose solution is presented. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 28-yr-old man underwent repair of bilateral inguinal hernia under spinal anaesthesia with dibucaine. At the end of operation, he developed generalized flush and circulatory collapse immediately after receiving Na acetate solution containing maltose, 5%, i.v. The reactions were treated with 32 mg ephedrine and 250 mg methylprednisolone i.v., and rapid infusion of 1,000 ml acetated Ringer's solution. The skin tests provoked positive responses to maltose solutions. CONCLUSION: The clinical features and skin tests suggested that the episode was an anaphylactoid reaction to maltose. maltose is one of the dissacharides (MW: 342) produced from starch and glycogen. maltose solutions are used frequently in japan as a carbohydrate source. Further study is required to confirm whether maltose has an immunological antigen-eliciting activity.
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