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1/25. Fibular nonunion and equinovarus deformity secondary to posterior tibial tendon incarceration in the syndesmosis: a case report after a bimalleolar fracture-dislocation.

    A 39-year-old woman sustained a grade II open bimalleolar fracture-dislocation of the left ankle. Six months after an ORIF of these fractures was performed, she presented with a nonunion of the distal fibula fracture and with a fixed hindfoot equinovarus and forefoot adduction deformity. At surgery for repair of the fibular nonunion, the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) was found to be entrapped in the posterior tibiotalar joint, with a portion of the tendon interposed between the tibia and the fibula in the area of the posterior syndesmosis. After extrication of the PTT, the hindfoot varus and forefoot adduction deformity were corrected. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the English literature of a missed PTT syndesmotic entrapment that resulted in a fibular nonunion and in a fixed foot deformity after an open bimalleolar ankle fracture dislocation.
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2/25. Tibialis posterior insufficiency occurring in a patient without peronei: a mechanical etiology.

    A patient presented with a painful flatfoot deformity, which developed after the onset of a drop-foot secondary to a herniated lumbar disk. On examination, the only functioning muscles were her gastrocnemius-soleus complex and her intrinsic toe flexors. Her affected foot had taken the classic deformity seen with tibialis posterior dysfunction--a valgus heel, midfoot collapse and an abducted forefoot. Peroneus brevis was not functioning and therefore could not be implicated as part of the etiology of this patient's acquired flatfoot deformity. The mechanism in which the ground reaction force produces the foot deformity in a tibialis posterior insufficient foot will be presented.
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3/25. magnetic resonance imaging depiction of tight iliotibial band in melorheostosis associated with severe external rotation deformity, limb shortening and patellar dislocation in planning surgical correction.

    We present the case of a 14-year-old male with melorhesotosis and severe iliotibial band tightness which was associated with femoral shortening, severe external rotational deformity of the femur, genu valgum and patellar dislocation in the right lower extremity. Skeletal survey revealed irregular radiodense streaks involving the pelvis, femoral head, femoral shaft, distal femoral epiphysis, talus and middle phalangeal bones of the foot. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed thickening of the iliotibial band in addition to low MR signal changes in the bone. Intraoperatively fibrosis in the subcutaneous layer and a thickened iliotibial band were found. MR images were very useful in understanding the soft tissue pathoanatomy in melorheostosis and planning surgical correction.
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4/25. Correction of complex foot deformities using the Ilizarov external fixator.

    There are many drawbacks to using conventional approaches to the treatment of complex foot deformities, like the increased risk of neurovascular injury, soft-tissue injury, and the shortening of the foot. An alternative approach that can eliminate these problems is the Ilizarov method. In the current study, a total of 23 deformed feet in 22 patients were treated using the Ilizarov method. The etiologic factors were burn contracture, poliomyelitis, neglected and relapsed clubfoot, trauma, gun shot injury, meningitis, and leg-length discrepancy (LLD). The average age of the patients was 18.2 (5-50) years. The mean duration of fixator application was 5.1 (2-14) months. We performed corrections without an osteotomy in nine feet and with an osteotomy in 14 feet. Additional bony corrective procedures included three tibial and one femoral osteotomies for lengthening and deformity correction, and one tibiotalar arthrodesis in five separate extremities. At the time of fixator removal, a plantigrade foot was achieved in 21 of the 23 feet by pressure mat analysis. Compared to preoperative status, gait was subjectively improved in all patients. Follow-up time from surgery averaged 25 months (13-38). Pin-tract problems were observed in all cases. Other complications were toe contractures in two feet, metatarsophalangeal subluxation from flexor tendon contractures in one foot, incomplete osteotomy in one foot, residual deformity in two feet, and recurrence of deformity in one foot. Our results indicate that the Ilizarov method is an effective alternative means of correcting complex foot deformities, especially in feet that previously have undergone surgery.
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5/25. Cavus deformity of the foot after fracture of the tibial shaft.

    Twenty-three cases of claw foot with limited talocrural and subtalar mobility were the result of muscle contracture of the leg after tibial-shaft fracture. A roentgenographic study including arteriography was performed. It was concluded that the typical short cavus foot is due to fibrous contracture of the muscles in the deep posterior compartment caused by vascular damage, swelling in the deep posterior compartment, or severe muscle laceration. On physical examination the distance between the lateral malleolus and the achilles tendon was shortened in comparison with the sound side in all cases. This was found to be caused by dorsiflexion in the talocrural joint coincident with adduction in the mid-tarsal joint. The angulation of the foot forced the patients to rotate the leg outward in order to get the feet in parallel position for walking. This deformity could be misinterpreted as an inward malrotation of the tibial fracture. In severe cases a derotating three-dimensional wedge osteotomy of the distal part of the tibia was performed with promising results.
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6/25. Tibialis spastic varus foot caused by osteoid osteoma of the calcaneus.

    Tibialis spastic varus foot is an extremely rare condition. A 30-year-old man had tibialis spastic varus foot caused by juxtaarticular osteoid osteoma of the calcaneus. The correct diagnosis was delayed because the symptoms were similar to arthritis and the nidus was difficult to detect on plain radiographs. curettage of the tumor was done, and the osseous defect was filled with interporous hydroxyapatite. The pain was relieved immediately after surgery. The varus deformity of the foot and spasm of the tibialis anterior muscle gradually improved. Three years 10 months after surgery, the patient was pain-free and the spasm of the tibialis anterior muscle had disappeared. The varus deformity and motion of the foot improved, but a restricted range of motion remained. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no published descriptions of tibialis spastic varus foot caused by juxtaarticular osteoid osteoma of the calcaneus.
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7/25. The dropped big toe.

    Surgical procedures for exposure of the upper third of the fibula have been known to cause weakness of the long extensor of the big toe post-operatively. The authors present three representative cases of surgically induced dropped big toe. From cadaveric dissection, an anatomic basis was found for this phenomenon. The tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles have their origin at the proximal end of the leg and receive their first motor innervation from a branch that arises from the common peroneal or deep peroneal nerve at about the level of the neck of the fibula. However, the extensor hallucis longus muscle originates in the middle one-third of the leg and the nerves innervating this muscle run a long course in close proximity to the fibula for up to ten centimeters from a level below the neck of the fibula before entering the muscle. Surgical intervention in the proximal one-third of the fibula just distal to the origin of the first motor branch to the tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles carries a risk of injury to the nerves innervating the extensor hallucis longus.
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8/25. Reconstruction of the chronically failed deltoid ligament: a new technique.

    BACKGROUND: Chronic deltoid ligament insufficiency that results in valgus tilt of the talus within the ankle mortise (stage IV adult acquired flatfoot) represents a difficult and so far unsolved problem in foot and ankle surgery. If left uncorrected, the deltoid failure with malalignment predisposes to early ankle arthritis and the need for ankle arthrodesis or possibly ankle arthroplasty. methods: Five consecutive patients with deltoid ligament insufficiency resulting in a valgus tilt were treated with a deltoid reconstruction. Reconstruction of the deltoid ligament was done by passing a peroneus longus tendon graft through a bone tunnel in the talus from lateral to medial and then through a second tunnel from the tip of the medial malleolus to the lateral tibia. RESULTS: At a minimum 2-year followup, all patients had correction of the talar tilt. One patient had 9 degrees of valgus tilt remaining compared to 15 degrees preoperatively, and the procedure was considered a failure. The remaining four patients had correction of the valgus tilt to 4 degrees or less. CONCLUSION: Although not uniformly successful, deltoid ligament reconstruction using a tendon graft through appropriate bone tunnels can reconstruct the deltoid ligament and correct the valgus talar tilt. Successful results were achieved when combined with correction of flatfoot deformity, which is considered a necessary part of the procedure.
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9/25. rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon: an important differential in the assessment of ankle injuries.

    rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon can be missed. We report a case of posterior tibialis tendon rupture that, owing to misdiagnosis, resulted in a significant foot deformity requiring arthrodesis for chronic pain.
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10/25. Cavovarus foot deformity with multiple tarsal coalitions: functional and three-dimensional preoperative assessment.

    In rare instances, tarsal coalition leads to cavovarus foot deformity, although the pathologic mechanism leading to this deformity is not clear. This article reports a case of a 14-year-old boy presenting a severe cavovarus deformity of the right foot with talocalcaneal and calcaneonavicular coalitions, and a mild cavus deformity of the left foot with a single talocalcaneal coalition. Computed tomography and postoperative histologic analysis demonstrated a synostosis between talus and calcaneus and a fibrous calcaneonavicular coalition with partial ossification. Instrumented gait analysis revealed a limited range of ankle plantar flexion and increased external rotation of the ankle. Associated skeletal malformations including incomplete hemimelia of the forearm and scoliosis raised the possibility of a teratologic condition, but neurologic examination, spinal magnetic resonance imaging, and nerve conduction velocities were normal. The progressive ossification of combined coalitions during growth of the foot may have been one factor leading to this complex foot deformity. The fine-wire electromyogram showed normal tibialis anterior and posterior muscle activity. Small soft tissue tears in the sinus tarsi may have led to a mild reflexive increase of the muscle tone and tendon shortening, which pulled the forefoot into adduction and the heel into varus, and raised the medial arch. Mechanical alterations of the ankle appear secondary to the heel varus and to the progressive deformity of the talus. Three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction and gait analysis appeared to be helpful additional parameters to understanding the pathomechanics of this complex foot deformity and for preoperative planning of triple arthrodesis.
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