Cases reported "Foot Injuries"

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11/88. Cross-foot island instep flap: a new use of instep skin flap for management of persistent wounds after complex plantar foot reconstruction.

    When presented with an extensive soft-tissue defect involving the sole of the foot, reconstruction with free muscle flaps covered by a split-thickness skin graft is the proposed method of treatment. However, persistent graft breakdown and a chronic wound of the weight-bearing flap is a challenging problem during the late postoperative period, as experienced by the authors in their patients with high-energy-induced lower extremity injuries. The authors used the instep flap as an island cross-foot flap to manage persistent graft breakdown that involved skin-grafted muscle flaps transferred previously to the heel in 3 patients and to treat a chronic wound involving an amputation stump in 1 patient. The vascular pathology of the injured extremities indicated a cross-leg procedure instead of a free flap transfer. Pedicles were wrapped with split-thickness skin grafts and flaps were harvested superficial to the plantar fascia. Pedicles were divided during postoperative week 3, and no complications related to the operation or to immobilization have been encountered during the postoperative follow-up. During the 1-year follow-up, durable coverage, free from development of open wounds, has been achieved, and patients have expressed their satisfaction. In the case of complicated, high-velocity foot injuries, the authors suggest that this procedure be kept in mind as an alternative treatment option because it has some advantages over conventional cross-leg procedures.
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ranking = 1
keywords = wound
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12/88. Complete survival of a free flap after early pseudoaneurysm formation and pedicle thrombosis.

    A microsurgical pseudoaneurysm is a very rare complication after free flap surgery. The authors report a case of a free thoracodorsal artery perforator flap transferred to a degloving wound on the dorsum of the foot and ankle. The patient developed pedicle thrombosis caused by a septic pseudoaneurysm, which was treated by conservative means. Sufficient vascularization developed within 15 days after surgery and the flap survived completely. This is in sharp contrast to other reported cases of pseudoaneurysm formation, all of which were treated surgically and resulted in flap failure, except in one case. A critical review of the literature is presented and the factors influencing flap survival are discussed.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = wound
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13/88. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Antibiotics after puncture wounds to the foot.

    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether antibiotics reduce infective complications after puncture wounds to the foot. A total of 29 papers were found using the reported search, of which none answered the question posed. Further research is needed in this area.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = wound
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14/88. Distally-based neurofasciocutaneous flaps in electrical burns.

    Distally-based neurocutaneous flaps have been used successfully for reconstruction of the lower extremity for some decades. The reconstruction of deep wounds exposing tendons, bones and/or vessels in electrical burns requires flap coverage. It is known that there is often some sub-clinical vascular damage in electrical burn injury. Therefore, an important part of the procedure is modification to improve flap viability during the reconstruction of electrical burn wounds. In this paper, we report our experience with the use of distally-based sural and saphenous neurocutaneous flaps for coverage of defects in the lower leg and foot in 14 electrical burn patients. In 12 patients, the flaps survived completely, in two patients the flaps underwent partial necrosis. In these cases, the width of the pedicle of the neurocutaneous flap was increased from 3.5 to 5cm and the neurovenous pedicle was decreased to give a delay effect several days before the flap harvesting. We believe that these modifications positively effect the viability of the flap and should be used to improve neurocutaneous flap circulation in high risk patients.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = wound
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15/88. Hot sand burns on the sole of a patient with diabetes.

    A patient with diabetes who burnt his feet by walking on hot sand was treated with an amorphous hydrogel, which resulted in full wound healing within four weeks. These patients should avoid walking barefoot on sand whenever possible.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = wound
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16/88. osteomyelitis following puncture wounds of the foot in children.

    review of the laboratory and clinical findings and treatment of eight patients with osteomyelitis of the foot after puncture wounds revealed that: 1) osteomyelitis after puncture wounds is a infrequent but potentially serious complication, with significant morbidity; 2) osteomyelitis is frequently preceded by inadequate primary care for simple puncture wounds, and when treatment is appropriate, osteomyelitis usually can be avoided; 3) P. aeruginosa is the most commonly recovered organism; 4) the clinical presentation is characterized by a lack of systemic toxicity, paucity of laboratory abnormalities, and evidence of a localized infection process and the patient may be asymptomatic for a few days to several months after the injury before presentation of the osteomyelitis; and 5) once the infection has become established, treatment must be aggressive, including surgical debridement.
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ranking = 1
keywords = wound
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17/88. Reconstruction of through-and-through gunshot wounds to the feet with free gracilis muscle flaps.

    Reconstruction of a through-and-through gunshot wound (GSW) to the foot remains a challenging problem for plastic and orthopedic surgeons, because it is difficult to achieve reliable soft tissue coverage of the foot while at the same time optimizing foot contour and weightbearing. In the past year, four patients with such an injury were treated with initial wound debridement and stabilization of the metatarsals, followed by a free gracilis muscle transfer with a split-thickness skin graft. One patient also had a secondary iliac bone graft to the first metatarsal. All patients have completely healed wounds, are free of osteomyelitis, and have achieved an excellent contour and good ambulation of the foot without donor site problems. Thus, a free gracilis muscle transfer should be considered first for reconstruction of a through-and-through GSW to the foot, because it can provide reliable soft tissue coverage with excellent contour and minimal donor site morbidity.
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ranking = 1
keywords = wound
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18/88. Reconstruction of pediatric foot and ankle trauma.

    Although reconstruction of complex distal lower extremity trauma has been studied extensively, the subject has rarely been evaluated in the pediatric population. The authors review their experience with 18 patients ranging from 2 to 18 years of age, who were admitted to the trauma service of the Children's Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh between 1991 and 1999 and required plastic surgery evaluation for the management of foot and ankle injuries. The mechanism of injury included motor vehicle accidents (6), lawnmower injuries (6), gunshot wounds (2), crush injuries (2), burns (1), and complex soft tissue injuries (1). The average hospitalization was 14.3 days, and, on average, 3.1 surgical procedures were required per patient. Most of the cohort required microvascular free tissue transfer (11). One patient was managed conservatively, whereas the remainder underwent surgical reconstruction by primary wound closure (1), skin graft (2), or local flap (3). No patient has required treatment of growth disturbance or late functional problems, and the entire population was ambulatory by their 3-month postoperative evaluation. Despite the severity of these injuries, with reliance on microvascular free tissue transfer, an acceptable outcome can be achieved with preservation of the ability to ambulate.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = wound
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19/88. The pyramidalis muscle free flap.

    The pyramidalis muscle is introduced as a new small muscle free flap, with description of its anatomy, the surgical technique and the clinical results in five different cases in which this flap was used to treat small recalcitrant wounds in the foot/ankle region. The pyramidalis muscle can be an alternative option in selective cases to reduce donor site morbidity as compared with more traditional free flaps.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = wound
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20/88. Foot wounds in diabetic patients. A comprehensive approach incorporating use of topical growth factors.

    Managing nonhealing foot wounds in diabetic patients requires an understanding of the wounds' multiple contributing causes, including neuropathy, vascular occlusive disease, infection, and impaired wound healing. Proper attention to each cause may require consultations with vascular or orthopedic surgeons, diabetic education nurses, podiatrists, orthotists, and pedorthists. Wounds that fail to heal may respond to topical application of growth factors as part of a comprehensive clinical approach to the diabetic foot wound. An aggressive approach to diagnosis and treatment can result in improved wound healing and limb salvage.
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ranking = 1.2857142857143
keywords = wound
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