Cases reported "Foreign-Body Migration"

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1/13. Migrating foreign body in the tracheobronchial tree: an unusual case of firework penetrating neck injury.

    Firework injuries can manifest themselves in many different ways; usually as an explosive or burn injury. This case describes an unusual presentation of a firework penetrating injury resulting in a sharp coiled metal foreign body travelling through a small entry wound in the neck and subsequently lodging itself in the tracheobronchial tree. A foreign body such as this can potentially travel a considerable distance through the soft tissues and end up in an unsuspecting distant site. There must, therefore, be a high index of suspicion with the appropriate radiological investigations for appropriate management of such cases.
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2/13. Tubular foreign body or stent: safe retrieval or repositioning using the coaxial snare technique.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility and advantages of the coaxial snare technique in the retrieval of tubular foreign bodies. MATERIALS AND methods: Using the coaxial snare technique, we attempted to retrieve tubular foreign bodies present in seven patients. The bodies were either stents which were malpositioned or had migrated from their correct position in the vascular system (n=2), a fragmented venous introducer sheath (n=1), fragmented drainage catheters in the biliary tree (n=2), or fractured external drainage catheters in the urinary tract (n=2). After passing a guidewire and/or a dilator through the lumina of these foreign bodies, we introduced a loop snare over the guidewire or dilator, thus capturing and retrieving them. RESULTS: In all cases, it was possible to retrieve or reposition the various items, using a minimum-sized introducer sheath or a tract. No folding was involved. In no case were surgical procedures required, and no complications were encountered. CONCLUSION: The coaxial snare technique, an application of the loop snare technique, is a useful and safe method for the retrieval of tubular foreign bodies, and one which involves minimal injury to the patient.
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3/13. Unusual breakage of a plastic biliary endoprosthesis causing an enterocutaneous fistula.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to illustrate a case of endoscopically placed biliary stent breakage. methods: A72-year-old woman with a prolonged history of cholangitis following laparoscopic cholecistectomy was referred to our institution 8 years ago. dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree and a benign stricture at the cystic confluence were observed at US and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). A 12-F gauge plastic endoprosthesis was placed. In the absence of any symptoms, breakage of the stent was revealed 18 months later at plain radiology. Eight years later an enterocutaneous fistula occurred originating from a jejunal loop containing the indwelled distal part of the stent. Surgery was undertaken and the distal part of the stent removed with the perforated jejunal loop. The proximal part was successively endoscopically removed. CONCLUSIONS: Disruption of a biliary endoprosthesis is observed in patients in whom the stent is kept in situ for a long period or consequent to exchange. The removal and exchange is mandatory when the stent disruption is followed by cholangitis. In the current case, because of the absence of any symptoms the removal of the stent was not attempted. Immediate endoscopic removal of the prosthetic fragments seems to be the treatment of choice for replacement of a new stent.
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4/13. An interesting case of a wandering foreign body in the tracheobronchial tree.

    Inhaled foreign body (FB) is a rare clinical entity for the ENT surgeon. We present a case of an inhaled foreign body in the right main bronchus shown to move to the left main bronchus by repeat chest X-ray during a delay prior to removal. The role of repeat chest X-ray if there is a significant delay before removal of an inhaled foreign body and the optimal management are discussed.
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5/13. Foreign body in the airway: unusual cause of acute dyspnoe after cardiac surgery.

    We report on a 68-year-old male who presented with acute onset of dyspnoea and cough. After coronary artery bypass grafting and mitral valve repair with an annuloplasty ring, postoperative recovery was initially uneventful. On the 6th postoperative day, he came back to intensive care unit due to acute dyspnoea. Fig. 1 demonstrates chest x-ray. We identified the foreign body as a dental prosthesis (Fig. 2).Removal from the right bronchial tree was successful using a flexible bronchoscope under local anesthesia; intubation was not required. This procedure was safe and well tolerated by the patient.Clinical presentation of adult foreign body aspiration are often nonspecific. Chest x-ray is very helpful for identification and localization of foreign bodies in the airway. Extraction can be performed with flexible or rigid bronchoscopy. For the removal, biopsy forceps, Fogarty balloon catheter, alligator forceps or wire baskets are effective.
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6/13. Repositioning a displaced tracheostomy tube with an Aintree intubation catheter mounted on a fibre-optic bronchoscope.

    Although tracheostomy tube displacement is uncommon, the management is often difficult and the associated mortality is high. It is important to ensure that the airway is secure and then either replace or reposition the tracheostomy tube. This case report describes the use of an Aintree intubation catheter (C-CAE-19.0-56-AIC, William Cook europe, denmark) mounted on an intubating fibre-optic bronchoscope (11302BD1, Karl Storz Endoskope, germany) to reposition a partially displaced tracheostomy tube.
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7/13. Biliary obstruction secondary to shrapnel.

    foreign bodies of the biliary tree represent infrequent causes of obstructive jaundice. We report a patient who developed biliary obstruction from metal shrapnel, 44 yr after a war injury. From our review of the literature, the syndrome of shrapnel-induced obstructive jaundice may occur many years after the initial injury. In the majority of patients, the missile lodges in the liver parenchyma, and migrates to the common bile duct. Complications from this injury include cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscesses. As demonstrated by this case, computed tomography scan and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatogram may reliably detect this infrequent occurrence. With the development of therapeutic biliary procedures, many foreign bodies can be removed endoscopically. Thus, one should consider shrapnel-induced biliary obstruction in those patients with obstructive jaundice and prior combat injury.
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8/13. tracheostomy tube fracture: an unusual etiology of upper respiratory airway obstruction.

    tracheostomy tube fracture with subsequent migration of the proximal fragment down the tracheobronchial tree is an almost unheard of cause of tracheal foreign bodies. Most such occurrences have been reported outside the united states, and only six previous reports have been filed. We report an additional case of fractured tracheostomy tube and review the literature.
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9/13. Foreign body embolization of the middle cerebral artery: review of the literature and guidelines for management.

    Two cases of traumatic middle cerebral artery occlusion secondary to migratory intravascular metallic pellets are presented. Surgical removal of the occlusive pellet was achieved in one patient, and vessel patency was restored. One patient recovered from his neurological deficit without surgical intervention. Factors such as the availability of a microvascular surgeon, the status of the neurological deficit resulting from the embolus, the time interval from injury to the proposed operation, and the extent of ancillary injuries sustained concurrently all bear weight on the decision to explore surgically or treat by medical measures. We believe that in cases of trauma an attempt to remove intravascular emboli is warranted to prevent migration of the embolus and distal propagation of thrombus, to avoid chronic sepsis, to prevent arterial erosion, and to restore the integrity of the vascular tree.
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10/13. Embolization of caval umbrella. Discussion and report of successful removal from the right ventricle.

    The first case of successful diagnosis and operative removal of a vena caval umbrella which had become detached and migrated to the right ventricle is reported. Complications from the employment of this device are discussed. In all cases of umbrella embolization to the right heart and pulmonary arterial tree, immediate operative removal is indicated. Precautions regarding umbrella insertion which minimize the likelihood of dislodgment and embolization are also mentioned.
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