Cases reported "Foreign-Body Reaction"

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1/11. Refractory facial cellulitis following cosmetic rhinoplasty after cord-blood stem cell transplantation.

    We report a case of a 38-year-old female patient who developed facial cellulitis after cord-blood stem cell transplantation (CBT). The cellulitis was refractory to treatment with antibiotics and antifungal agents. Because facial cellulitis is rare after transplantation, its mechanism could not be determined exactly. On day 40 after CBT, a nurse with expertise in cosmetic surgery attended our rounds and correctly assumed that the patient had received cosmetic rhinoplasty. Although conventional x-rays of the head were normal, a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the brain disclosed the presence of a foreign body over the nasal dorsum. As a result, the patient's symptoms were diagnosed as facial cellulitis associated with foreign material that had been implanted at the time of cosmetic surgery. At a pretransplantation interview, the patient did not mention her history of rhinoplasty. Even after she was shown the head CT scans that revealed the presence of nasal implants, she denied that she had received rhinoplasty before CBT. Unless we realize that patients may have received cosmetic surgery before transplantation, it is difficult to make a diagnosis of infection associated with foreign implants. To our knowledge this is the first report after transplantation of infection associated with cosmetic surgery. Such infections should be included on the list of complications after bone marrow transplantation.
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2/11. Cutaneous reaction from a broken thermometer.

    A cutaneous and soft tissue reaction that resulted from a broken thermometer inside the mouth of a 10-year-old boy is described. Metallic mercury globules and glass pieces were identified in the excised tissue. On histologic examination, a zone of necrosis, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells surrounded metallic mercury that appeared as dark opaque globules. Dense fibrosis and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia were also noted in the dermis and deeper tissues. The gold lysis test, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis confirmed the presence of mercury in the tissue. A literature review on cutaneous mercury granuloma illustrates its unpredictable course. The cutaneous reaction may remain localized, but some cases are associated with an elevated mercury level in blood and urine, pulmonary embolism, mercury poisoning, and even with fatal outcome. Various manifestations of mercury poisoning and guidelines for the management of cutaneous mercury granuloma are discussed.
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3/11. Foreign body epithelioid granuloma after cosmetic eyebrow tattooing.

    We describe two patients with epithelioid granulomatous inflammation on the eyebrows after undergoing cosmetic eyebrow tattooing. We tried to analyze the causative elements from biopsy specimens and tattoo inks with x-ray microanalysis. We suggest that granuloma caused by cosmetic eyebrow tattooing is a complication worthy of mention.
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4/11. Axillary lymphadenopathy 17 years after digital silicone implants: study with x-ray microanalysis.

    Axillary lymphadenopathy developed in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis 17 years after the placing of Swanson implants in the hand. Foreign material in the lymph nodes was identified as silicone by energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis. This emphasizes the long latent period that may be associated with this clinical phenomenon which may mimic other, more serious, diseases.
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5/11. Constrictive pericarditis associated with patch electrodes of the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    A case of constrictive pericarditis intimately involving patch electrodes of the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is described. Typical clinical and hemodynamic findings for constrictive pericarditis were noted 15 months after lead installation. Additionally, chest x-ray examination revealed a severe crumpling deformity of the patch electrodes. thoracotomy was performed and revealed marked fibrous reaction surrounding both surfaces of each patch electrode. Histologic examination revealed fibrous tissue with multinucleated giant cells, consistent with a foreign body reaction. The patient had complete resolution of signs and symptoms of constrictive pericarditis after removal of the patch electrodes and pericardial stripping. Constrictive pericarditis from implanted patch electrodes appears to be an uncommon complication of the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and should be considered in patients with one or more patch electrodes and other signs of constrictive pericarditis.
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6/11. Silicone granulomas: report of three cases and review of the literature.

    Since silicone is rapidly becoming one of the most commonly used biomaterials in modern medicine, pathologists will be observing increasing numbers of cases of silicone-related disease. Although numerous case reports have established that silicone elicits a characteristic response in tissues, the varying tissue reactions to silicone gels, liquids, and elastomers (rubber) have not been emphasized. Three cases are reported, and the literature is reviewed to illustrate the varying features of tissue reaction to silicone in its different forms. The first case is an example of silicone lymphadenopathy in an inguinal lymph node. This case demonstrates exuberant foreign body granuloma formation in response to particles of silicone elastomer. The second case involves a patient who had facial subcutaneous liquid silicone injections, and the third case is that of a woman in whom breast carcinoma developed 13 years after mammary augmentation with liquid silicone injections. These two cases illustrate the characteristic reaction to silicone liquid, with numerous cystic spaces and vacuoles in the soft tissues but minimal or no foreign body giant cell reaction. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis were performed in the first two cases, confirming the presence of silicon. Silicone migration and the clinical significance of various silicone-induced lesions are discussed.
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7/11. Cutaneous mercury granuloma. A clinicopathologic study and review of the literature.

    Cutaneous mercury granulomas are rarely encountered. Clinically they pose difficulty in diagnosis when there is no clear history of penetrating injury by objects containing metallic mercury. Histologic, chemical, and scanning electron microscopic studies of such cutaneous lesions were performed on four cases from the Armed Forces Institute of pathology files. Reported cases from the literature were reviewed. Metallic mercury in tissue sections appears as dark, opaque globules, usually spherical in shape and of varying sizes and numbers. A zone of collagen necrosis often surrounds the mercury globules. A granulomatous foreign body-giant cell reaction and a mixed inflammatory cellular infiltrate composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes, histiocytes, plasma cells, and occasional eosinophils are usually present. Epidermal and dermal necrosis, with or without ulceration or pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, is also a common finding. The gold lysis test and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis confirmed the presence of metallic mercury in the tissue. Following cutaneous injury from mercury, systemic toxicity may develop and death may even occur. An approach to clinical management is discussed.
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8/11. Widespread foreign-body granulomas and elevated serum angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    A patient had extensive foreign-body granulomatous inflammation of multiple skin sites and of the inguinal lymph nodes with splenomegaly, cutaneous anergy to common skin antigens, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. The patient had an elevated serum angiotensin-converting enzyme level. Histologically, the granulomas were of the foreign-body type with lymphocytes, histiocytes, eosinophils, and giant cells, some that contained doubly refractile crystalline material. Electron-probe x-ray microanalysis identified silicon, magnesium, iron, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, titanium, and chromium in the crystalline material. These findings suggest talc, cement, and inorganic pigment as possible sources of the crystals. This case is reported for its unusual clinical, laboratory, and morphologic features.
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9/11. Foreign body: a review of two cases.

    A thorough history and examination, as well as x-rays, are essential before attempting to remove a foreign body from the foot. The author discusses two of his cases that present interesting problems.
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10/11. Dystrophic calcification of an implanted hydroxyethylmethacrylate intraocular lens.

    Hydroxyethylmethacrylate is a biomaterial still under clinical trial for use in foldable intraocular lenses. We observed a patient in whom a geographic opacification developed within an implanted hydroxyethylmethacrylate lens, together with granular deposits on the posterior lens capsule and in the scar of a paracentesis. The intraocular lens and posterior lens capsule were removed because of impaired visual acuity. light and scanning electron microscopy disclosed nodular calcifications within the intraocular lens and granular, partially crystalline, calcifications on the posterior lens capsule. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis and x-ray diffraction showed the deposits in the intraocular lens to consist of calcium hydroxyapatite. We presume this mineralization to be dystrophic, with calcium derived from lens remnants and phosphorus possibly derived from a thymoxamine solution used briefly during the cataract operation. Our observation suggests caution in the use of phosphated solutions together with hydroxyethylmethacrylate intraocular lenses and may warrant reconsideration of the suitability of hydroxyethylmethacrylate intraocular lenses, should additional similar cases be reported.
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