Cases reported "Fractures, Bone"

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1/495. Eighteen fractures in a man with profound mental retardation.

    A 39-year-old man with generalized tonic clonic epilepsy and profound mental retardation sustained 18 fractures (15 in appendicular and 3 in axial bones) during 19 years. Both femoral necks were fractured, requiring surgical repair. Although he had been on antiepileptic drugs for 35 years, he had no radiographic or biochemical sign of osteomalacia. He had a very low bone mineral density, suggesting osteoporosis. This case illustrates an important medical problem affecting people with developmental disability and a management challenge for their caretakers.
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2/495. Insufficiency fractures, an often unrecognized diagnosis.

    diagnosis of sacral insufficiency fractures is difficult since the onset is mild, and usually discomfort is attributed to degeneration of the lumbar spine. Computed tomography and radionuclide bone scans are helpful in making the diagnosis, as regular X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging usually fail to demonstrate the fracture.
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3/495. osteotomy for malunion of a talar neck fracture: a case report.

    A malunion of the talar neck after a Hawkins type II fracture/dislocation of the talar neck occurred in a 34-year-old man after nonoperative treatment. Rigid varus deformity of the forefoot was a source of severe pain and disability in this patient. We describe our surgical technique for osteotomy of the talar neck with insertion of a tricortical iliac crest bone graft to correct the deformity. At follow-up (56 months), the patient had consistent relief of pain and was employed at his preinjury job doing heavy labor. The score on the American Orthopaedic foot and ankle Society ankle-Hindfoot Scale improved from 11 points, preoperatively, to 85 points, postoperatively. Radiographs showed maintenance in the position of the osteotomy and no evidence of avascular necrosis in the talar body. Evidence of arthrosis of the talonavicular joint was apparent radiographically, but the patient did not complain of symptoms referable to this area.
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4/495. Periprosthetic fracture of the acetabulum during total hip arthroplasty in a patient with Paget's disease.

    The case of a patient with Paget's disease of the pelvis (acetabulum) who had an intraoperative posterior wall fracture during the insertion of a noncemented acetabular component into an under-reamed acetabular bed of sclerotic Pagetoid bone is reported. This unusual complication has not, to my knowledge, been previously reported. patients with sclerotic bone, like those with osteoporotic bone, may also be at risk for periprosthetic acetabular fractures when an under-reaming technique is used.
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5/495. Heterotopic bone formation in association with pelvic fracture and urethral disruption.

    PURPOSE: The initial and secondary management of pelvic fracture associated with disruption of the membranous urethra is the subject of a wide literature containing varied and controversial viewpoints. We have noted the presence of heterotopic bone formation surrounding the area of urethral injury in patients undergoing delayed repair. We investigated the etiology, incidence and risk factors associated with such an injury, as well as potential means of prophylaxis. MATERIALS AND methods: We reviewed the current literature on heterotopic bone formation with similar traumatic injury. While instances of severe urethral disruption of this type are fortunately rare in children we describe prepubertal boys with such an injury complicated by heterotopic ossification. RESULTS: The incidence of heterotopic ossification reported in children and adolescents is 3 to 15%, which is less than 15 to 80% reported in adults. risk factors associated with traumatic heterotopic ossification include prolonged operating time, hematoma formation, degree of bony debris, devitalized muscle and concomitant infection. Prophylaxis with single low dose radiation or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been shown to be effective in the prevention of heterotopic ossification and may be beneficial in this patient population. CONCLUSIONS: Heterotopic bone formation associated with severe traumatic injury in the presence of devitalized tissue resulting in the pathological formation of new bone is rare. This complication is only associated with the most severe pelvic fractures. Prophylaxis in these most severe cases with low dose radiation or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can prevent the formation of heterotopic bone.
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6/495. Staged operative treatment in a septic patient with an infected, unstable pelvis, and a missed bladder rupture.

    This case demonstrates once again the potential and serious complications of pelvic fractures, especially when associated urogenital injuries are missed. Missing the bladder rupture proved almost fatal to our patient. Second, it was confirmed that in very unstable pelvic fractures, external fixation alone does not provide enough stability. Local stability is the cornerstone in the treatment of (bone) infection, and in these cases, maximal stability is only obtainable with internal fixation. The advantages of metal implants in infected areas outweigh the disadvantages by far. For the bladder-rupture, we chose a two-stage approach. First, we performed a urinary diversion, to avoid surgical closure of the infiltrated bladder wall. All cavities, including the open bladder, were packed with omentum to fill the dead space with highly vital tissue to offer stout resistance to infection. Two years later, with the patient in excellent physical condition, urinary undiversion was carried out. Ultimately physical and social recovery was complete.
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7/495. Significance of serum c-reactive protein elevation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    serum c-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was determined by a radial immunodiffusion method in serum samples collected over a mean period of 19 months from a group of 17 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Thirty-two episodes of CRP elevation were detected. Twenty of these were associated with active SLE, and 9 with proven or possible infection or bone fracture. In 3 cases no explanation for CRP elevation was readily apparent. There were 8 instances of onset or exacerbation of lupus activity without accompanying CRP elevation. These data indicate that CRP elevation in the course of SLE is frequently associated with activation of lupus, and that detection of such elevation does not differentiate between lupus activity and infection.
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8/495. Polycystic bone disease: A new, autosomal dominant disorder.

    We describe a new heritable bone disease characterized radiographically by increasingly numerous and enlarging cyst-like lesions throughout the skeleton. Beginning in early childhood, a father, son, and daughter all suffered from progressively frequent pathological fractures involving such radiolucencies. Healing occurred uneventfully and with little residual pain or deformity. Biochemical parameters of mineral homeostasis and skeletal turnover were normal. Bone scanning showed increased radioisotope uptake primarily in fractures and in the largest collections of the lesions. The histopathology is uncertain, but may reflect a form of intraosseous lipomatosis. This unique condition, which we have provisionally named polycystic bone disease, is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with a high degree of penetrance.
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9/495. Co-existence of osteogenesis imperfecta and hyperparathyroidism.

    osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and hyperparathyroidism (HTP) are disorders affecting the skeletal system and calcium metabolism not evidently related to one another. We report a case in which both OI and HPT were present. Our female patient presented with hypercalcaemia (S-Ca2 1.59 mmol/l; normal range 1.15-1.30) and 4-gland parathyroid hyperplasia at 30 years of age. Since her first year she had fractures, blue sclera, hypermobile joints, short stature (height 1.51 m, weight 49.5 kg) but normal hearing, and dentiogenesis imperfecta (tooth disease caused by defective formation of dentin) was absent. This patient bears many similarities with the 5 patients reported previously but it is the only patient, to our knowledge, with OI and early onset of HPT (30 year old female). We have found the OI to be type 1. A minor improvement of the rate of bone turnover 10 months after parathyroidectomy indicates the HPT to be primary and suggests the OI type 1 and pHPT to be two different calcium metabolic diseases incidentally occurring in the same patient.
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10/495. Traumatic fracture of the hyoid bone: three case presentations of cardiorespiratory compromise secondary to missed diagnosis.

    hyoid bone fractures secondary to blunt trauma other than strangulation are rare (ML Bagnoli et al., J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1988; 46: 326-8), accounting for only 0.002 per cent of all fractures. The world literature reports only 21 cases. Surgical intervention involves airway management, treatment of associated pharyngeal perforations, and management of painful symptomatology. The importance of hyoid fracture, however, rests not with the rarity of it, but with the lethal potential of missed diagnosis. We submit three cases with varying presentations and management strategies. All three of our cases incurred injury by blunt trauma to the anterior neck. Two patients required emergent surgical airway after unsuccessful attempts at endotracheal intubation. One patient presented without respiratory distress and was managed conservatively. After fracture, the occult compressive forces of hematoma formation and soft tissue swelling may compromise airway patency. It is our clinical observation that hypoxia develops rapidly and without warning, leading to cardiorespiratory collapse. With endotracheal intubation prohibited by obstruction, a surgical airway must be established and maintained. Recognition of subtle clinical and physical findings are critical to the diagnosis of laryngotracheal complex injuries and may be life-saving in many instances. To ensure a positive outcome, a strong degree of suspicion based on mechanism of injury is mandated.
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