Cases reported "Fractures, Bone"

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1/128. Anterior interosseous nerve compression after supracondylar fracture of the humerus: a metaanalysis.

    OBJECT: The authors conducted a metaanalysis of reports of anterior interosseous nerve syndrome, a rare nerve compression neuropathy that affects only the motor branch of the median nerve. This syndrome is characterized by paralysis of the flexor pollicis longus, the flexor digitorum profundus to the index finger, and the pronator quadratus, with weakness on flexion of the interphalangeal joint of the thumb and the distal interphalangeal joint of the index finger without sensory loss. methods: The authors reviewed reports of 34 cases of anterior interosseous nerve syndrome combined with supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. They have added a new case identified in a 7-year-old boy in whom a diagnosis was made from the clinical findings and whose treatment and outcome are analyzed. The ages of patients reported in the literature ranged from 4 to 10 years. Ten patients (29%) were treated with closed reduction and application of a cast, whereas 25 patients (71%) were treated with open reduction and fixation of the fracture. CONCLUSIONS: All patients regained full flexion and strength after 4 to 17 weeks. The fractures that were surgically treated showed no entrapment of the anterior interosseous nerve.
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2/128. Spinal muscular atrophy variant with congenital fractures.

    A single report of brothers born to first-cousin parents with a form of acute spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and congenital fractures suggested that this combination represented a distinct form of autosomal recessive SMA. We describe a boy with hypotonia and congenital fractures whose sural nerve and muscle biopsies were consistent with a form of spinal muscular atrophy. Molecular studies identified no abnormality of the SMN(T) gene on chromosome 5. This case serves to validate the suggestion of a distinct and rare form of spinal muscular atrophy while not excluding possible X-linked inheritance.
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3/128. Anterior interosseous nerve palsy associated with Galeazzi fracture.

    Galeazzi fracture is more common in adults than in children. Associated neurologic deficits are rare and easily missed at the first clinical examination. The authors describe a case of anterior interosseous nerve palsy after closed Galeazzi fracture. Conservative treatment resulted in complete return of normal nerve function, suggesting that this is a neurapraxia type of injury.
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4/128. Transarticular fixation with the capacity for motion in fracture dislocations of the elbow.

    Post-traumatic stiffness of the elbow joint is a frequent result of immobilisation leading to severe disability in the use of the upper extremity. Recognition of the tendency to stiffness leads to the assumption that the strong self-healing forces of the capsule and ligament apparatus converts the initial instability of the joint after ligament disrupture, into a high-grade undirected stability following immobilisation. Directed stability as it is produced by the natural ligament apparatus of the joint on the other hand produces a guided movement of the joint in one direction. These theoretical considerations lead to the idea that the self-healing forces of the ligament apparatus under continuous guided movement of the joint will result in a stable and movable joint to allow healing of the compromised soft tissue envelope and moreover to maintain free soft tissue access without compromising the stability. For this a unilateral fixator with motion capacity was developed. The joint bridging application approaches the humerus and ulna from the lateral side. The proximal pin group is inserted into the proximal region of the humerus respecting the radial nerve. The distal pin group is implanted from the dorsal side into the middle third of the ulna. The fixator has a hinge joint. The design of the fixator clamps, bars and the hinge joint allows simple alignment with the rotational axis of the elbow. Pro- and supination of the forearm is unhindered. Flexion and extension can be permitted according to the soft tissue situation.
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5/128. Lumbosacral nerve root avulsion: report of a case and review of the literature.

    The 14th myelographically demonstrated case of lumbosacral nerve root avulsion is presented with a summary of the previously reported cases. In most cases lumbosacral nerve root avulsion is associated with pelvic fractures and sacroiliac dislocation, which cause a stretching force to be applied to the nerves of the lumbar and sacral plexuses, and in turn to the nerve roots intradurally. This force causes nerve root avulsion in the intradural course of the nerve root. The myelographic defect is a pseudomeningocele or diverticulum-like outpouching created by the tearing of the arachnoid covering of the nerve roots. myelography clearly indicates nerve root avulsion and surgical exploration is not indicated.
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6/128. Painless fractures and thermoregulation disturbances in sensory-autonomic neuropathy: electrophysiological abnormalities and sural nerve biopsy.

    We describe the case of a young girl suffering from thermoregulation disturbances, painless fractures and arthropathy since early childhood. The patient was diagnosed as having a hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy. Although needle EMG, conventional nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked potentials gave normal results, sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) were absent. sural nerve biopsy showed a substantial reduction in the number of small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. We emphasize the importance of SSR testing in revealing a condition which is otherwise difficult to identify by electrophysiological techniques. The combined evidence of functional and morphological findings is strongly suggestive of selective peripheral nerve involvement.
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7/128. Entrapment of the sensory branch of the radial nerve (Wartenberg's syndrome): an unusual cause.

    Isolated neuropathy of the cutaneous branch of the radial nerve is a rarely recognized pathology. It was described in 1932 by Wartenberg, who suggested the name cheiralgia paraesthetica. The syndrome is described as known the entrapment of the superficial branch of the radial nerve. Many different etiologic factors for chronic nerve entrapment have been described, however our case has an unusual cause. A 52 year old man had pain and paresthesia in the area over the lateral aspect of the wrist, thumb and first web six months after colles' fracture. The patient underwent bony spike resection after five months with ineffective conservative treatment. He has satisfied after this operation. The case was presented because of disappearing his preoperative complaints after the operation with respect to Wartenberg's syndrome constituted a rare cause of bone spike which has not been mentioned in the literature.
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8/128. Open scapulothoracic dissociation.

    Scapulothoracic dissociation refers to the traumatic separation of the shoulder from the chest wall. This most commonly occurs as a closed injury. We present a case of open scapulothoracic dissociation and emphasize clinical features unique to this injury. In both closed and open scapulothoracic dissociation, the force necessary to shear the scapula from its thoracic attachments results in vascular disruption and neurologic injury to the upper extremity. As a consequence, patients have a pulseless, flail upper extremity with a significant chest wall hematoma (closed) or active bleeding (open). The first priority is to resuscitate and address life-threatening injuries. If the patient has active bleeding, immediate vascular control to prevent exsanguination is essential. patients with ischemia and an incomplete injury or unreliable neurologic examination need revascularization. Outcome is based on the extent of brachial plexus or cervical nerve root avulsion. patients with loss of neurologic function ultimately benefit from amputation at the appropriate level.
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9/128. Intraarticular entrapment of the obturator nerve in acetabular fracture.

    SUMMARY: The authors report a case of acetabular fracture of both columns that was associated with a rare nerve injury, entrapment of the obturator nerve in the hip joint.
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10/128. Fracture of the hook of the hamate.

    Three patients with hamate hook fractures were evaluated. These fractures were difficult to diagnose clinically and radiographically. Mechanisms of injury reported in the literature include blunt trauma to the hamulus or pisiform, forceful swinging of a grasped object, or a forceful muscular contraction. delayed diagnosis may result in late complications including carpal tunnel syndrome, flexor tendon rupture, ulnar nerve palsy, or ulnar artery compromise. pain when grasping or swinging an object is often a clue to the correct diagnosis. Normal standard and carpal tunnel views do not exclude this injury. tomography may be necessary for radiographic detection and permits detailed evaluation of fracture margins. Pertinent carpal anatomy is reviewed.
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