Cases reported "Fractures, Bone"

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1/100. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach diuretic therapy and a laxative causing electrolyte and water imbalance, loss of attention, a fall and subsequent fractures of the tibia and fibula in an elderly lady.

    The case is described of a hitherto well, alert and intelligent lady of 85 years of age, who commenced medication with diuretics--prescribed for mild congestive cardiac failure; she developed constipation consequent upon the diuresis and dehydration thereby provoked. As a result she began to take, unknown to her general practitioner, regular and increasing amounts of laxatives. At about this time she was noted by her son to become "rapidly senile"--with the result that she fell on account of losing her normally good concentration and attention; she sustained fractures of the right tibia and fibula. Shortly after admission to hospital she was premedicated, anaesthetised and operated upon, following which there was a postoperative regimen comprising several litres of low sodium isotonic infusions, all given intravenously. She was found at this point to be severely hyponatraemic with a low serum osmolality, but following the institution of water restriction rapidly improved as her serum sodium rose again; there was an accompanying massive diuresis as the previously retained water was voided. Concomitant with the serum sodium rise her mental concentration and attention regained their former levels. The biochemical and cellular mechanisms underlying this patient's symptoms are discussed.
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2/100. Distal disinsertion of the patellar ligament combined with avulsion fractures at the medial and lateral margins of the patella. A case report and an experimental study.

    A 12-year-old boy presented with a proximally retracted patella 5 months after an injury to the left knee. The clinical and radiographic features and the findings at operation led to the conclusion that the original lesion had been a distal disinsertion of the patellar ligament combined with avulsion fractures at the medial and lateral margins of the patella, produced by the medial and lateral longitudinal patellar retinacula. Loading experiments on amputation and cadaver specimens showed that these retinacula, apart from being tendons for the vastus medialis and the vastus lateralis, respectively, constitute a direct fibrous connection of considerable strength between the patella and the tibia and thus are capable of producing avulsion fractures.
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3/100. Combined talar body and tibial plafond fracture: a case report.

    We report a case of a crush fracture of the body of the talus associated with an anterior tibial plafond fracture. This injury is a rare variant of talar body fracture which merits special attention. The bony injury in this type of fracture is associated with multiple loose fragments involving both weightbearing surfaces of the ankle joint. After appropriate imaging to allow preoperative planning, we utilized a two-incision approach which was necessary to achieve adequate exposure and fixation. We used basic fracture management principles to deal with a previously undocumented fracture pattern.
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4/100. Traumatic rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon after ankle fracture: a case report.

    Degenerative tears of the posterior tibial tendon associated with chronic disease are well documented in the literature. Traumatic ruptures of this tendon, however, are much less common and consequently have received little attention. An association has been shown between pronation-external rotation ankle fractures and tears of the tendons that cross the medial aspect of the ankle, most commonly the posterior tibial tendon. In the present case report, we share our unique experience of an open-ankle fracture associated with the traumatic rupture of the posterior tibial tendon. This injury illustrates that soft-tissue injury must always be suspected concomitantly in the treatment of certain fractures on the basis of both mechanism of injury and fracture pattern.
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5/100. Immediate tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with interposition fibular autograft for salvage after talus fracture: a case report.

    Treatment goals in the operative management of talus fractures include prompt, anatomic, open reduction with rigid internal fixation; functional outcome is measured by degree of arthrosis, pain, range of motion, limb length, cosmesis, and return to premorbid activities. If restoration of the articular surfaces is precluded secondary to comminution, immediate and/or staged reconstructive salvage procedures must be considered. This report describes an immediate reconstructive procedure for salvage after a comminuted talus fracture with an ipsilateral tibia fracture. A standard antegrade tibial nail extending into the calcaneus was selected to stabilize both fracture sites. The technique of tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis using interposition fibular autograft and intramedullary fixation is presented as a unique treatment option.
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6/100. A case of peroneal neuropathy-induced footdrop. Correlated and compensatory lower-extremity function.

    This article reports on the case of a man with peroneal neuropathy-induced footdrop who was seen at the authors' institution 3 years after open reduction and internal fixation of a proximal fibular fracture and a distal, spiral, oblique tibial fracture of the right leg. A comprehensive gait analysis was conducted. A significant footdrop in gait resulted in a "reverse check mark" center-of-pressure pattern, an increased transverse-plane rotation of the foot, and excessive knee and hip flexion in the sagittal plane. These objective findings documented significant dysfunction within the involved lower extremity; in addition, aberrant biomechanics were observed in structures other than the site of initial injury within both limbs.
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keywords = tibia
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7/100. The Frenchman's fibular fracture (Maisonneuve fracture).

    Two patients with injuries to the ankle sustained by rotational trauma complained only of pain in the ankle. Careful examination revealed tenderness over the proximal fibula. Subsequent radiographic studies revealed high helical fracture of the fibula, as originally described by Maisonneuve. The Maisonneuve fracture is produced by diastasis - a separation of bones resulting from rupture of ligaments around the ankle. According to classification of fibula injuries by mechanism of injury, the Maisonneuve fracture is due to external rotation of the foot relative to the tibia but it is not clear whether the foot is in pronation or supination or moves during injury.
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8/100. Marginal plafond impaction in association with supination-adduction ankle fractures: a report of eight cases.

    In five years, approximately 800 ankle fractures were seen at the authors' institution, forty-four (5 percent) of which were of the supination-adduction pattern. Nineteen of these injuries had displaced vertical medial malleolus fractures, of which eight (42 percent) showed marginal impaction of the tibial plafond. All eight patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation with elevation of the impacted articular component and had good to excellent functional outcome with no arthritis on radiograph at the time of the most recent follow-up. The index of suspicion of marginal impaction of the tibial plafond should be high when treating supination-adduction pattern ankle fractures with displaced medial malleolus.
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keywords = tibia
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9/100. Fracture-dislocation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint: open reduction through a medial incisional approach.

    A case of traumatic fracture-dislocation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is reported. This type of injury is extremely rare. The injury was associated with complete disruption of the following anatomic structures: conjoined tendon of abductor hallucis and medial head of flexor hallucis brevis, plantar plate, and the intersesamoid ligament. Additionally, there was a transverse fracture of the tibial sesamoid. Excision of the fractured tibial sesamoid trapped within the joint and primary repair was achieved through a medial incisional approach. A complete description of the repair and rationale for the surgical procedure is discussed.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = tibia
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10/100. Bicycle spoke fracture.

    Twenty-nine children were treated for bicycle spoke injury, which occurred while they were sitting behind their riding parents. Their feet were caught in between the bicycle spoke and the frame rod. Five of these children suffered supramalleolar fracture. These fractures had a similar radiographic pattern, namely a greenstick fracture of the distal end of the tibia and fibula, buckling into varus and usually also into anterior angulation. Healing of the fractures was uneventful. These injuries are preventable by rigid plastic net covers for the rear wheel of the bicycle.
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