Cases reported "Fractures, Closed"

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1/7. Refracture of proximal fifth metatarsal (Jones) fracture after intramedullary screw fixation in athletes.

    This study details six instances of refracture of clinically and radiographically healed fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal after intramedullary screw fixation. Four professional football players, one college basketball player, and one recreational athlete underwent intramedullary screw fixation of fifth metatarsal fractures. The athletes were released to full activities an average of 8.5 weeks (range, 5.5 to 12) after fixation, when healing was clinically and radiographically documented. Three football players developed refracture within 1 day of return to full activity. The other three athletes refractured at 2.5, 4, and 4.5 months after return to activity. Two football players underwent repeat fixation with larger screws and returned to play in the same season. The college basketball player underwent bone grafting and returned to play in subsequent seasons. The other three athletes underwent nonoperative management and healed uneventfully over 6 to 8 weeks. On the basis of this series, we recommend that 1) screw fixation using a large-diameter screw should be given careful consideration for patients with large body mass for whom early return to activity is important; 2) functional bracing, shoe modification, or an orthosis should be considered for return to play; 3) if refracture occurs, exchange to a larger screw may allow return to play in the same season; and 4) alternative imaging should be considered to help document complete healing.
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2/7. tibial fractures. The Ilizarov alternative.

    Between February 1988 and May 1989, 17 consecutive patients with 18 tibial fractures were treated using the Ilizarov method and apparatus. Injuries included four closed fractures and 14 open fractures. There were three Grade I open, four Grade II open, and seven Grade III open tibial fractures. Indications for application of the Ilizarov frame included fractures that were determined to need surgical management primarily, or fractures that had failed to heal by other treatment methods, either operative or nonoperative. patients averaged 17.7 months of follow-up treatment. One patient was lost to follow-up treatment after the fracture healed and the device was removed. To date, all fractures are healed. There was one delayed union, which subsequently healed with a second application of the device. Complications included two late wound infections, both in Grade III open fractures. These occurred after removal of the Ilizarov apparatus. The average time from application of the device to complete fracture healing was 5.6 months, with a range of 3.25 to 13 months. This compares favorably with the results described for other treatment modalities. These results indicate that the Ilizarov method is indeed a useful adjunct in the orthopedic armamentarium for the treatment of either open or closed tibial fractures. No practical contraindications to the use of the Ilizarov device in the management of tibial fractures were encountered.
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3/7. Fixation of a talar osteochondral fracture with cyanoacrylate glue.

    Cyanoacrylate glue was invented by Ardis in 1949 and was first used in surgery in 1959 by Coover. By further modifications, a nonhistotoxic form, butyl-2-cyanoacrylate, which had strong tissue binding properties even in nondry environments, was developed. Its use in the fixation of fractures and osteotomies is still under investigation and has had promising results in treatment of craniofacial and mandibular injuries. We fixed a talar osteochondral fracture with cyanoacrylate. After 3 months, magnetic resonance imaging showed an anatomically reduced and intact chondral surface. The clinical result was excellent. We believe cyanoacrylate glue may form an alternative means of fixation for osteochondral and, possibly, for chondral fractures.
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4/7. Pedicled internal oblique rotational muscle flap for reconstruction of lateral pelvic defects: report of 4 cases.

    Various local and distant flaps have been used to repair pelvic defects, including sartorius, rectus abdominis, rectus femoris, tensor fascia lata, vastus lateralis, gracilis, and omentum, each with benefits and disadvantages. The pedicled internal oblique rotational muscle flap has been described to cover pelvic wounds but may be underutilized. We present our experience with 5 pedicled internal oblique flaps in 4 patients (3 male, 1 female). The mean patient age was 32 years (23-47 years), and the mean follow-up was 8 months. All patients required coverage of the lateral pelvis after failure of conservative measures. There were no major complications. One patient experienced decreased sensation in the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve distribution, which resolved fully within 3 months. The internal oblique muscle provides local soft-tissue coverage with a predictable blood supply, and its proximity to the pelvis offers an alternative for reconstruction of lateral pelvic defects, with minimal associated morbidity.
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5/7. Cervical spine fracture following a motor vehicle accident.

    We present the case of a 50-year-old man who visited our emergency department 12 h after an alcohol-related motor vehicle accident complaining of shoulder pain and neck stiffness. Cervical spine radiographs were obtained and interpreted as normal, and the patient was discharged. Subsequent review by a radiologist raised the question of a second cervical vertebra (C-2) abnormality, and the patient was recalled. Cervical computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an unstable oblique fracture of C-2 and a congenital nonfusion of the arch of C-1. The patient was placed in halo traction, and subsequent radiographs revealed a fracture of the transverse process of C-7. The patient made an uneventful recovery. The limitations of routine cervical radiographs are well-documented, but no feasible alternative exists as a screening procedure. Thus, a certain level of uncertainty must be accepted. Both physician and patient must recognize the limitations inherent in all medical practice and that follow-up examination and treatment are essential.
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6/7. Occult infected fracture of the femur: report of two cases with long-term followup.

    The unusual occurrence of secondary infection of a closed fracture in two patients is described. The various possible etiologies of this syndrome and alternatives for treatment are discussed. Recognition of this entity and initiation of early definitive care, usually including open packing of the fracture wound, are emphasized.
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7/7. Treatment of difficult PIP joint fractures with a mini-external fixation device.

    Closed intra-articular proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint fractures--often with accompanying joint subluxation--constitute a difficult treatment problem. This article presents an alternative method consisting of closed treatment of complex PIP joint fractures with a mini-external fixator. The method utilizes the traction principle without necessitating a complex outrigger system. immobilization is reduced to 3 weeks and monitored with a mini-fluoro unit. The three cases presented had 1- to 2-year follow-up and excellent clinical results despite suboptimal roentgenographic appearance.
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