Cases reported "Fractures, Compression"

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11/19. Vertebral augmentation complicated by perioperative addisonian crisis.

    BACKGROUND: We describe a case of perioperative Addisonian crisis induced by vertebral augmentation. While several complications of vertebral augmentation have been reported previously, related to the technical procedure, to our knowledge, perioperative Addisonian crisis from vertebral augmentation has not been reported in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To report an Addisonian crisis perioperative to vertebral augmentation. Design: Case report. METHOD: Retrospective case review. RESULTS: The patient had a history of adrenal insufficiency treated previously with steroids. He developed an L3 vertebral compression fracture, failed conservative therapy and was eventually referred for vertebral augmentation. Immediately after starting the procedure, the patient developed profound hypotension unresponsive to intravenous fluids and vasopressors, consistent with Addisonian crisis. After intravenous steroids had resolved the Addisonian crisis, he underwent vertebral augmentation without further complication. CONCLUSION: Addisonian crisis may be triggered by vertebral augmentation. Practitioners need to recognize immediately this potentially lethal disorder in patients with known or suspected adrenal insufficiency and treat with intravenous hydrocortisone.
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keywords = fracture
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12/19. A case of systemic lupus erythematosus expressing intractable thrombocytopenia remedied effectively by intermittent and continuous administrations of a small amount of immune globulin.

    We describe a case where intermittent and continuous administrations of a small amount of immune globulin were effective in the treatment of refractory chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Steroid pulse therapy and cyclophosphamide pulse therapy were considered for thrombopenia. However, the patient had compressed fracture of the lumbar vertebrae due to osteoporosis and right external malleolus ulcer with complications of infection. Therefore, high-dose intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) therapy (400 mg/kg daily for 5 consecutive days) was administered. Then, as a maintenance therapy, a small amount of 400 mg/kg for 1 day (400 mg/kg monthly) was given in an intermittent and continuous manner, which resulted in improvement of thrombocytopenia and reduction of the amount of steroid administered.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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13/19. Percutaneous vertebroplasty of a myelomatous compression fracture in the presence of previous posterior instrumentation. Report of two cases.

    The authors report the use of percutaneous transpedicular vertebroplasty performed using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in two patients. These men (53 and 57 years old) had previously undergone open surgery and posterior instrumentation to treat myelomatous compression fractures. Both patients presented with acute back pain that manifested after minor activities. Kyphotic wedge fractures were diagnosed at T-1 in one case and at L-1 in the other. Both patients were treated at other hospitals with laminectomy and instrumented fusion; multiple myeloma was diagnosed after surgery. The patients experienced severe, recalcitrant, and progressive pain; on referral, they were found to have persistent kyphosis. Multiple myelomatous lesions of the spine were seen in one case and in the other the L-1 fracture represented the only site of disease. Percutaneous vertebroplasty was performed by injecting PMMA into the anterior third of the compressed vertebral body. Both patients experienced a 50% reduction in pain immediately after treatment; 3 months later both were walking and reported minimal back pain while undergoing treatment for multiple myeloma. Three years after surgery one patient reported no back pain and no progressive instability of the spine. Four years after surgery the other patient remains pain free, ambulatory, and with overall disease remission. Percutaneous vertebroplasty provided effective analgesia in these two patients with progressive back pain despite posterior stabilization. In both cases, the anterior column was effectively stabilized. A much larger operative intervention with its attendant risks of morbidity was avoided. In addition, subsequent aggressive medical treatment was well tolerated.
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keywords = fracture
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14/19. Severe osteoporosis and multiple fractures in an AIDS patient treated with short-term steroids for lymphoma: a need for guidelines.

    An hiv-1 infected patient on dual protease inhibitor treatment developed spontaneous vertebral fractures and avascular necrosis of the femoral bone after receiving combined chemotherapy for Burkitt's lymphoma including short-term prednisolone. The factors involved in the pathogenesis of osteopaenia and osteoporosis in this case are discussed and we propose the need for guidelines in order to reduce the incidence of such events in HIV-infected patients in the future.
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ranking = 5
keywords = fracture
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15/19. Three-level bilateral pediculolysis following osteoporotic lumbar compression fracture.

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Osteoporotic compression fractures frequently occur at the thoracolumbar junction as a result of anterior column failure. Fractures of the pedicles are much less common and are not known to be associated with a prior compression fracture. Bilateral pedicle fractures over several consecutive lumbar levels in an osteoporotic elderly patient have not been previously reported. PURPOSE: To draw attention to this unusual case and to review the relevant literature. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical case report of bilateral fractures of the pedicles from L3 through L5 in an 83-year-old male 2 years after an osteoporotic L3 compression fracture presenting with low back pain. methods: An 83-year-old male presented with low back pain two years after sustaining osteoporotic compression fracture at L3 due to a fall. He had another minor fall and his radiographic workup revealed bilateral fractures of the pedicles of the L3, L4, and L5 vertebrae. The patient was treated nonoperatively. RESULTS: The patient's symptoms improved without surgical intervention. Subsequent radiographic evaluation with plain films, computed tomography, and bone scan demonstrated union of the fractured pedicles. CONCLUSIONS: In this uncommon case of bilateral lumbar pedicle fractures over three consecutive levels, isolated failure of the posterior rather than the anterior column occurred. This unusual fracture pattern may have been precipitated by the previous vertebral compression fracture. Nonsurgical management may result in acceptable clinical outcome.
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ranking = 15
keywords = fracture
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16/19. Acute vertebral compression fractures in patients with multiple myeloma: evaluation of vertebral body edema patterns on MR imaging and the implications for vertebroplasty.

    The presence of edema on MR imaging is a common finding in acute or subacute vertebral body compression fractures. Compression fractures can present in patients with benign osteoporosis, metastases, multiple myeloma, or hemangiomas. We present 2 patients with multiple myeloma who had symptomatic acute and subacute compression fractures documented on imaging studies without associated edema on MR imaging evaluation.
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ranking = 7
keywords = fracture
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17/19. Latent mobility of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.

    PURPOSE: To describe the property of latent mobility in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) and discuss its clinical significance. MATERIALS AND methods: This was a retrospective case series of 14 patients with 14 painful osteoporotic VCFs who were comfortably confined to the supine position overnight for the purpose of vertebral height restoration. There was sufficient additional vertebral height restoration the following morning to allow percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) in some patients when this had initially been deemed unsafe or technically impossible. Anterior vertebral height of the index VCF was measured from the preoperative standing lateral, immediate cross-table supine lateral, and postconfinement cross-table supine lateral radiographs as well as the first postoperative standing lateral radiograph. Dynamic mobility was defined as the difference in anterior vertebral height between preoperative standing lateral and immediate cross-table supine lateral radiographs. Latent mobility was defined as difference in anterior vertebral height between immediate cross-table supine lateral and postconfinement cross-table supine lateral radiographs. Postoperative vertebral height restoration was defined as the difference in anterior vertebral height between preoperative and first postoperative standing lateral radiographs. Mean patient age was 81.0 years, and mean fracture age was 83.6 days. RESULTS: Dynamic mobility averaged 4.7 mm (range, -2.1 to 12.6 mm; P = .001). Latent mobility averaged 2.7 mm (range, -1.9 to 15.5; P < .02). The average sum of preoperative dynamic and latent mobility ( 7.4 mm; range -1.0 to 17.0; P < .001) was not different from final postoperative vertebral height restoration (P > .4). PV was successfully accomplished in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: Latent mobility occurs in some VCFs and contributes to vertebral height restoration. Recognition of latent mobility may permit vertebroplasty in some patients in whom the procedure had otherwise been deemed unsafe. Reports of vertebral height restoration following vertebral augmentation should account for that proportion resulting from dynamic and latent mobility.
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ranking = 6
keywords = fracture
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18/19. Posterior spinal epidural abscess: an unusual complication of vertebroplasty.

    OBJECTIVE: Complications after vertebroplasty are rare. There are few reported infectious complications requiring surgical management such as corpectomy with anterior reconstruction and posterior stabilization, although we have not seen any reports about epidural abscess in the literature. We present a patient in whom posterior epidural abscess developed after vertebroplasty in which drainage and antibiotherapy were required for treatment. methods: A 70-year-old female with a painful T12 osteoporotic compression fracture underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty using polymethylmethacrylate without complication. One week after vertebroplasty, however, she had fever and increased back pain. On clinical examination, soft tissue abscess formation was determined at the vertebroplasty site. This was drained surgically and antibiotic treatment was started. At follow-up, she had progressive neurological deterioration (paraparetic) on the 18th day after abscess drainage. MRI of the thoracolombar spine revealed posterior spinal epidural abscess at the T11/12 level. Partial laminectomy and drainage were performed. She had complete neurological recovery in the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: An epidural abscess, which is an unusual complication of vertebroplasty, represents a medical and surgical emergency. Treatment is generally urgent surgical drainage combined with antibiotics. The patient should be evaluated in detail for systemic infectious disease and comorbid conditions before the vertebroplasty procedure.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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19/19. Persistent notochordal canal mimicking compression fracture: a case report.

    A persistent notochordal canal is a rare anomaly that is generally discovered by chance. The radiographic appearance of this entity is characteristic and usually does not require further investigation. However, in some cases plain films may fail to depict this appearance, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is required for final diagnosis. We report the MRI findings of a young woman with persistent notochordal canal who, based on plain radiographs, had first been misdiagnosed as having a compression fracture.
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ranking = 5
keywords = fracture
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