Cases reported "Fractures, Open"

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1/39. Articular fractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint with missing elements: repair with partial toe joint osteochondral autografts.

    Five cases of traumatic destruction of a condyle of the proximal interphalangeal joint repaired with a free autogenous graft of a corresponding toe condyle are presented. Precise fitting is essential: 1 patient required a second graft when the initial undersized graft was absorbed. Four of the 5 cases regained laterally stable bicondylar joints and functional fingers. Range of motion varied inversely to the magnitude of the injury and the surgery. Active range of motion at the proximal interphalangeal joint was 80 degrees in 2 digits, 45 degrees in 1, and 10 degrees in 1 complex case; 1 case was considered a failure.
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2/39. Bisegmental rotational fracture dislocation of the pediatric cervical spine. A case report.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case of a bisegmental rotational fracture dislocation in the pediatric cervical spine is presented. OBJECTIVES: To highlight the problems in the diagnostics and surgical management of this rare type of injury. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Fractures of the cervical spine are relatively uncommon in childhood. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a bisegmental rotational fracture dislocation in the pediatric cervical spine managed by a combined anteroposterior approach. methods: A 6-year-old girl was hit by a car as a pedestrian. In addition to an open fracture dislocation of the Lisfranc joint in the right foot, she sustained a bisegmental fracture dislocation at the lower cervical spine (C3-C5) with no neurologic deficit. The complete diagnosis of a locked rotational fracture dislocation could be established only by using computed tomography scans with three-dimensional reconstructions. The injury was managed with a combined anteroposterior open reduction and a bisegmental anterior fusion. RESULTS: Implant removal was performed after bony fusion 6 months after surgery. At follow-up assessment 2.5 years later, the girl had a good radiologic result and a full and pain-free functional recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Bisegmental rotational fracture dislocations in pediatric cervical spines are not easily diagnosed and may require three-dimensional computed tomography scan reconstructions for complete assessment. In such rare cases, a combined anteroposterior surgical procedure may be indicated, with a bisegmental anterior fusion providing a good functional result.
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3/39. Avascular necrosis of the distal phalangeal epiphysis following physeal fracture: a case report.

    Avascular necrosis of the distal phalangeal epiphysis following an unrecognized angulated Salter II fracture of the distal phalanx treated by open reduction and internal fixation resulted in premature closure of the growth plate and mild shortening. The epiphysis itself revascularized and good function of the distal interphalangeal joint was maintained.
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4/39. Fibular nonunion and equinovarus deformity secondary to posterior tibial tendon incarceration in the syndesmosis: a case report after a bimalleolar fracture-dislocation.

    A 39-year-old woman sustained a grade II open bimalleolar fracture-dislocation of the left ankle. Six months after an ORIF of these fractures was performed, she presented with a nonunion of the distal fibula fracture and with a fixed hindfoot equinovarus and forefoot adduction deformity. At surgery for repair of the fibular nonunion, the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) was found to be entrapped in the posterior tibiotalar joint, with a portion of the tendon interposed between the tibia and the fibula in the area of the posterior syndesmosis. After extrication of the PTT, the hindfoot varus and forefoot adduction deformity were corrected. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the English literature of a missed PTT syndesmotic entrapment that resulted in a fibular nonunion and in a fixed foot deformity after an open bimalleolar ankle fracture dislocation.
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5/39. Treatment of pilon fractures using the ilizarov technique. case reports and review of the literature.

    Tibial pilon fractures are difficult to manage because of their severity. These injuries are frequently open and contaminated, with marked comminution of the articular surface and metaphysis. The results of open reduction and internal fixation are dependent on the severity of the initial injury and the quality and stability of the reduction. The literature reports numerous complication rates associated with open reduction and internal fixation of pilon fractures. The ilizarov technique of external fixation has fewer complications, and allows restoration of joint surfaces, reconstruction of length, and alignment of the extremity while maintaining a sufficient range of joint motion. Two cases of pilon fractures in which the Ilizarov method was utilized are reported, along with a review of the literature.
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6/39. Inferior dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint: a report on four cases.

    The authors report four cases of inferior dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint. A literature search disclosed reports on superior, anterolateral and posterolateral dislocation, but none on inferior dislocation of the proximal tibiofibular joint. The latter was associated in these four cases with fracture of the tibia, as also noted in cases of superior dislocation, and with severe neurovascular lesions.
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7/39. Distal femur osteoarticular allograft reconstruction after grade III open fractures in pediatric patients.

    Even though massive osteoarticular allografts have been reported to restore function successfully after tumor resection, little has been published about this procedure in post-traumatic joint reconstruction. We report two pediatric patients who sustained a grade III open fracture of the distal femur and were treated with osteoarticular allografts as a salvage procedure. In each patient, a femoral condyle was inserted to treat the bone and cartilage defect, and a 4.5 dynamic compressive plate was applied to fix the graft to the host bone. There were no complications after the reconstructive procedure. At 2 and 10 years of follow-up, both patients showed a favorable functional and radiographic outcome using the scoring instruments of the Musculo-skeletal Tumor Society and the International Symposium on limb salvage.
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8/39. Fourteen-year results of a reversed vascularized second metatarsophalangeal joint transfer: a case report.

    We report a case of free vascularized, second-toe metatarsophalangeal joint transfer in a 34-year-old manual laborer. The metatarsophalangeal joint of the left second toe was transferred to the metacarpophalangeal joint of the right ring finger in a reversed fashion. Fourteen years after surgery the transferred joint is painless and stable and flexion is 80 degrees with extension lag of 52 degrees without arthritic changes on radiographs.
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9/39. leg length preservation with pedicled fillet of foot flaps after traumatic amputations.

    Six patients with insufficient soft-tissue coverage after lower limb trauma were treated with pedicled fillet of foot flaps to achieve primary stump closure and to preserve leg length. The flaps used were all based on either the posterior tibial neurovascular pedicle, the anterior tibial neurovascular pedicle, or both. Five flaps survived; one patient required conversion of a through-knee to an above-knee amputation and debridement of the flap because of venous thrombosis of the pedicle. In three of the cases, a functional knee joint was preserved. The patients ranged in age from 21 to 54 years, the mean hospital stay was 55.5 days (range, 28 to 76 days), and the mean follow-up time was 14.5 months. Despite an average of 4.3 procedures from initial admission to first discharge and an average of 2.0 postamputation procedures to achieve primary stump healing, all patients have achieved independent mobility with their prosthesis. The advantages of preserving leg length and, where possible, preserving a functional knee joint compensate for repeated procedures on these patients. When planned well, a pedicled fillet of foot flap therefore achieves the aims of amputation, namely, providing primary healing of a sensate, durable, cylindrical stump that is pain-free and preserves maximal leg length. This is achieved with no donor-site morbidity and with no need for microvascular reconstruction.
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10/39. Supracondylar femur nonunion associated with previous vascular repair: importance of vascular exam in preoperative planning of nonunion repair.

    One case of a Gustilo type 3C open OTA 33A-1 supracondylar femur fracture with superficial femoral artery injury that underwent reverse saphenous vein graft repair and open reduction and internal fixation with a retrograde femoral nail is reviewed. The fracture progressed to a hypertrophic nonunion despite 2 bone-grafting procedures and a nail dynamization. Upon referral for revision of the nonunion, a vascular examination revealed a well-perfused extremity with slightly diminished pedal pulses. An arteriogram was ordered that revealed an intraosseous aneurysm associated with the nonunion site and vascular repair. In a joint procedure with vascular and orthopedic surgeons, the previous vessel repair was mobilized, the aneurysmal feeder vessels were ligated, and the nonunion was revised with bridge plating and iliac crest autograft. The nonunion healed uneventfully, and the patient shows no signs of vascular compromise at the 2-year follow-up. The importance of the preoperative vascular assessment is emphasized, and the literature is reviewed.
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