Cases reported "Fractures, Open"

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1/24. Sideswipe elbow fractures.

    A retrospective review of all cases of sideswipe elbow fractures (SSEFs) treated at two community hospitals from 1982 to 1992 was conducted to determine the functional outcome of the operative treatment of SSEFs. All five injuries involved the left elbow, and they included open fractures of the olecranon, the radius and ulna, the ulna and humerus, the humerus, and traumatic amputation of the arm. Concomitant injuries included three radial nerve palsies and two injuries each to the median nerve, ulnar nerve, and brachial artery. Treatment included irrigation, debridement (repeated if necessary), open reduction and internal fixation, external fixation (one case), and delayed amputation (one case). An average of 130/-10 degrees elbow flexion/extension, and 60/60 degrees supination/pronation was obtained for the three of four patients with reconstructions who returned for follow-up.
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2/24. Salvage of open tibial fracture with segmental loss of tibial nerve: case report and review of the literature.

    We report a case history, treatment, and follow-up of an open comminuted distal tibial fracture with significant soft tissue loss and segmental loss of the tibial nerve and posterior tibial artery. This constellation of injuries with an insensate plantar foot has often been an indication for amputation. In this instance, a functional distal extremity was salvaged with the use of Ilizarov fixation, delayed primary tibial nerve cable grafting, and staged soft tissue coverage. Clinical follow-up and review of the literature on the techniques used are offered for consideration.
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ranking = 2
keywords = nerve
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3/24. Is there a place for external fixation in humeral shaft fractures?

    There is a good indication for unilateral axial dynamic external fixation in fractures of the humeral shaft when the fracture appears in the distal third or in cases of bilateral fractures. A non-union or a posttraumatic paralysis of the radial nerve may be indications for external fixation as well as fractures associated with multiple injuries. Further indications include osteitis, infected non-union and comminuted fracture. There is maximum protection of the soft tissue with this method of treatment. External fixation combines the advantages of conservative and operative treatment by influencing callus formation by dynamizing, distraction or compression. Minimizing soft tissue damage facilitates the decision for early exploration of the radial nerve in cases of palsy. A safer positioning technique of the distal screws of the fixator is described.
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keywords = nerve
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4/24. Complete sciatic nerve palsy after open femur fracture: successful treatment with neurolysis 6 months after injury.

    Although relatively uncommon, peripheral nerve can be injured secondary to fracture or dislocation. As therapeutic strategies may vary with the status of the nerve involved, accurate diagnosis is critical. The case described in this report involves a complete sciatic nerve palsy occurring after an open femur fracture treated 6 months earlier. The palsy was erroneously attributed to ischemic neuropathy from compartment syndrome, but late surgical exploration showed that the sciatic nerve was in continuity but enveloped by scar. Neurolysis resulted in full motor and sensory recovery below the knee. Accurate interpretation of physical findings and neurophysiologic tests in the management of fractures associated with nerve injury is emphasized.
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ranking = 3
keywords = nerve
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5/24. Single-stage achilles tendon reconstruction using a composite sensate free flap of dorsalis pedis and tendon strips of the extensor digitorum longus in a complex wound.

    The reconstruction of the posterior heel including a wide defect of the Achilles tendon is difficult as a result of complicated infection, deficient soft tissue for coverage, and functional aspects and defects of the tendon itself. As a single-stage procedure, various methods of tendon transfer and tendon graft have been reported along with details of local flaps or island flaps for coverage. With advances in microsurgical techniques and subsequent refinements, several free composite flaps, including tendon, fascia, or nerve, have been used to reconstruct large defects in this area without further damaging the traumatized leg. The authors report such a single-stage reconstruction of a composite achilles tendon defect using the extensor digitorum longus tendon of the second to fourth toe in combination with a dorsalis pedis flap innervated by the superficial peroneal nerve. The follow-up of this case has proved a satisfactory outcome to date.
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6/24. Composite vascularised osteocutaneous fibula and sural nerve graft for severe open tibial fracture--functional outcome at one year: a case report.

    Management of severe open tibial fracture with neurovascular injury is difficult and controversial. Primary amputation is an acceptable option as salvaging the injured, insensate, and ischaemic limb may result in chronic osteomyelitis and non-functional limb. We report a case of open tibial fracture associated with segmental bone and soft tissue loss, posterior tibial nerve and artery injuries, which was further complicated by chronic osteo-myelitis treated with composite vascularised osteocutaneous fibula and sural nerve graft. Functional outcome of the injured limb at one-year follow-up was satisfactory: the patient was capable of achieving full weightbearing and was able to appreciate crude touch, pain, proprioception, and temperature at the plantar aspect of the foot. There was no pressure sore or ulceration.
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ranking = 2
keywords = nerve
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7/24. Use of the extended-pedicle vastus lateralis free flap for lower extremity reconstruction.

    BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue coverage in the lower extremity usually requires a flap with a long pedicle, low donor-site morbidity, and versatility in terms of shape and volume. The extended-pedicle free vastus lateralis muscle flap has previously been described for head and neck cancer, and it fulfills these requirements. methods: Twelve patients with lower extremity defects underwent reconstruction with an ipsilateral free vastus lateralis muscle flap. The flap included a segment of the distalmost part of the muscle, distal to the entry point of the motor nerve to the vastus lateralis, based on the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex vessels. Up to 20 cm of vascular pedicle with a large caliber was obtained. In three cases, a combined distal vastus lateralis and anterolateral thigh flap was used as a chimeric flap. RESULTS: All flaps were successful. infection developed in two cases and required flap reelevation and new wound debridement. There was no substantial subjective donor-site morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Elevation of the flap can be performed with the patient in the supine position and is extremely fast and straightforward, without the added difficulty of anatomical variation or extensive intramuscular vascular dissection. The pedicle is long and of large caliber. Although the series is short, the authors conclude that this is a useful free flap for lower extremity reconstruction.
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keywords = nerve
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8/24. Split flexor carpi ulnaris transfer: a new functioning free muscle transfer with independent dual function.

    BACKGROUND: A functioning free muscle transfer is a well-established modality of restoring upper limb function in patients with significant functional deficits. Splitting the neuromuscular compartments of the free muscle based on its intramuscular neural anatomy and using each compartment for a different function would allow for restoration of two functions instead of one at the new distant site. methods: The authors previously reported on the clinical use of a pedicled split flexor carpi ulnaris muscle transfer. They now report the use of this muscle as a functioning free split muscle transfer to restore independent thumb and finger extension in a patient with total extensor compartment muscle loss in the forearm and a concomitant high radial nerve avulsion injury. RESULTS: Nine months postoperatively, the patient was able to extend his thumb and fingers independent of each other. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a functioning free split muscle transfer demonstrating two independent functions in the upper limb.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = nerve
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9/24. Intact radial and median nerve after open third degree distal fracture of the humerus.

    A 54 year old man sustained a third degree open fracture at the distal part of the right humerus with massive soft tissue defect involving most of the upper arm. The radial and median nerves were completely bared and exposed by 6 cm for radial and 3 cm for median nerve. The nerves were in continuity, but there was complete rupture of surrounding muscles: biceps, triceps and brachialis. The fracture was stabilized by external fixation method--reinforced by wires. Preoperative and postoperative sensorimotor status of the right hand was good. One year later sensory and motoric status of right hand showed no deficiencies, but flexion and extension in elbow were limited to 100 and 180 degrees respectively. Pronosupination was restricted. This case report is consistent with results of biomechanical studies in vitro confirming high tolerance of radial and median nerve to stretching injury.
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ranking = 2.6666666666667
keywords = nerve
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10/24. Immediate internal fixation of high-energy open forearm fractures.

    Eighteen patients with Gustilo and Anderson Grade III A (7), III B (8) or III C (3) open diaphyseal forearm fractures were treated with a protocol consisting of extensive primary debridement, immediate open reduction, dynamic compression plate fixation, and vascular repair when indicated. This was followed by routine redebridement at 24 to 48-h intervals until wound status allowed completion of soft tissue reconstruction. Bone grafting was performed at 8 to 10 weeks following obtainment of a closed soft tissue envelope for injuries with extensive comminution or bone loss (5 patients, 7 fractures). Subsequent procedures such as tendon transfers, scar revision, joint arthrodesis, or secondary nerve reconstruction were required in 8 of 18 patients. Minor complications related to delayed wound healing occurred in 3 individuals (15%). One deep infection of a fractured radius occurred in a patient with a floating elbow and failed free flap. Salvage with debridement, retention of hardware, and a second free flap resulted in fracture union. One patient required a second bone graft to obtain union of a segmental forearm defect. amputation was performed in one patient following failed forearm replantation with greater than 8 h warm ischemia time. Immediate debridement and plate fixation of Grade III forearm fractures performed in conjunction with aggressive soft tissue management provided good or excellent results in 12 patients (66%) and is an acceptable treatment alternative in these difficult injuries.
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