Cases reported "Fractures, Stress"

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1/20. Bilateral fracture of the sacrum associated with pregnancy: a case report.

    We describe a 33-year-old woman with a bilateral fracture of the sacrum associated with pregnancy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and femoral neck showed normal bone mineral density, whereas bilateral osteopenic areas in the massae laterales were demonstrated by the initial CT-scan. The question remains whether the correct diagnosis is so-called insufficiency fracture due to transient osteoporosis of the sacrum associated with pregnancy or so-called fatigue fracture due to unaccustomed stress related to rapid and excessive weight gain in the last trimester of pregnancy.
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2/20. Stress fracture of the hip and pubic rami after fusion to the sacrum in an adult with scoliosis: a case report.

    Correction of adult scoliosis frequently involves long segmental fusions, but controversy still exists whether these fusions should include the sacrum. It has been suggested that forces associated with activities of daily living transfer the stresses to the remaining levels of the spine and to the pelvis. The case described here was a 43-year-old woman with scoliosis and chronic back pain refractory to non-surgical modalities. Radiographically, the patient had a 110 degree lumbar curve. An anterior and posterior fusion with Luque-Galveston instrumentation was performed. Six months postoperatively the patient returned with a 2-week history of right hip pain with no history of trauma. There was radiographic evidence of a displaced femoral neck fracture and pubic rami fractures. The femoral neck fracture was treated with a total hip replacement. Further surgeries were required to correct a lumbar pseudoarthrosis and hardware failure. We believe that this case provides evidence that fusion into the lumbosacral junction may distribute forces through the pelvic bones and hip resulting in stress and potential hardware complications, especially in patients at risk due to osteopenic conditions.
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3/20. Intrafracture fluid: a new diagnostic sign of insufficiency fractures of the sacrum and ilium.

    MRI is generally regarded as being sensitive but non-specific for the detection of insufficiency fractures affecting the sacrum and pelvic ring. The finding of intrafracture fluid is described in two elderly patients with insufficiency fractures. This MR feature is believed to be a new diagnostic sign of these fractures affecting the sacrum and ilium.
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4/20. Lumbosacral pain in an athlete.

    This report presents a case of a stress fracture in the sacrum. The diagnosis of a stress fracture in the sacrum is an uncommon localization and has been reported infrequently in the English literature. association of this type of stress fracture with a pneumatocyst has not previously been reported.
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5/20. Stress fractures of the sacrum. An atypical cause of low back pain in the female athlete.

    low back pain is a common finding in an athletically active premenopausal female population. We describe an unusual cause of persistent low back/sacroiliac pain: a fatigue-type sacral stress fracture. Plain radiographs, bone scans, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging studies were obtained in the female athletes to determine the nature of the pathologic abnormality. The most significant risk factor for fatigue-type sacral stress fractures was an increase in impact activity due to a more vigorous exercise program. Potential risk factors such as abnormal menstrual history, dietary deficiencies, and low bone mineral density were examined. The clinical course was protracted, with an average 6.6 months of prolonged low back pain before resolution of symptoms. Sacral fatigue-type stress fractures did not preclude the athletes from returning to their previous level of participation once healing had occurred.
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6/20. Early fracture of the sacrum or pelvis: an unusual complication after multilevel instrumented lumbosacral fusion.

    STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of a series of cases with a complication of instrumented lumbosacral fusion. OBJECTIVES: To present a previously undescribed complication, early sacral or pelvic stress fracture, after instrumented lumbosacral fusion and to identify the risk factors associated with this complication. BACKGROUND: There are a number of well-described complications of instrumented lumbosacral fusion, including delayed stress fracture of the pelvis. Early sacral or pelvic stress fracture after instrumented lumbosacral fusion has not been previously reported, to the authors' knowledge. methods: The authors present three cases of early stress fracture occurring at 2-4 weeks after surgery in patients who underwent instrumented multilevel lumbosacral fusions for degenerative lumbosacral disease. RESULTS: Two patients had sacral fracture, which to the authors' knowledge, has not been previously reported. risk factors included lumbosacral instrumentation and fusion, osteoporosis in elderly women, and iliac crest bone graft procurement. All patients were treated conservatively, with restricted ambulation and gradual return to activity. CONCLUSION: This complication can cause significant morbidity and a delay in the patient's return to function. A better understanding of the related biomechanical forces and preoperative risk factors may identify patients at risk and may aid in surgical planning and in expectations of postoperative recovery.
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7/20. Early sacral stress fracture after reduction of spondylolisthesis and lumbosacral fixation: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Early sacral fracture is an extremely rare complication of instrumented lumbosacral fusion seen in older, osteopenic women. Previous reports have attributed the problem to the use of multisegmental (three or more levels) fixation, with the transfer of stress forces from rigid spinal implants to the sacrum. We report the only case, to the best of our knowledge, of early sacral fracture after a two-level lumbosacral fusion and the only case of early sacral fracture after reduction of spondylolisthesis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A patient presented with a sudden recurrence of low back and buttock pain a few days after lumbosacral decompression, reduction of L5-S1 Grade II spondylolisthesis, and instrumented L5-S1 fusion, including posterior lumbar interbody fusion. A transverse sacral fracture was found on plain x-rays 4 weeks later. INTERVENTION: Symptoms improved with brace therapy and medical treatment for osteoporosis. CONCLUSION: Early sacral fracture is a rare cause of pain after instrumented lumbosacral fusion. Although the transfer of loads from rigid spinal implants to adjacent segments is particularly problematic for multisegmental fusions, patients with short-segment constructs may also be affected. Active reduction of spondylolisthesis may provide additional adjacent segment stress contributing to this complication.
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8/20. tarlov cysts--another cause of sacral insufficiency fractures?

    Two cases of sacral insufficiency fractures occurring in patients with large tarlov cysts are described. We suggest that tarlov cysts and other bony defects in the sacrum may predispose to these fractures.
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9/20. fatigue fracture of the sacrum in an adolescent.

    There are relatively few reports of sacral stress fractures in children. In adolescents, sacral stress fractures have been reported in patients involved in vigorous athletic activity. Recognition of these fractures is important to avoid unnecessary biopsy if the findings are confused with tumor or infection. We report a sacral fatigue fracture in a 15-year-old without a history of athletic participation or trauma.
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10/20. Utilization of iliac screws and structural interbody grafting for revision spondylolisthesis surgery.

    STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case analysis and presentation. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to discuss the spectrum of failed spondylolisthesis cases for which either anterior column support or iliac screw fixation or both are useful in salvaging failed spondylolisthesis surgeries. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Past studies and experience have suggested that there is a relatively high rate of sacral screw failure both in long constructs to the sacrum in the adult population and also with treatment of both high-grade and adult spondylolisthesis at L5-S1. It has been noted that anterior column support at L5-S1 and additional fixation points in the sacropelvic unit provide some protection to the sacral screws. methods: This article details the author's personal and institutional experience with sacropelvic fixation and anterior column support at L5-S1 to salvage failed spondylolisthesis cases. RESULTS: To some extent, each case needs to be individualized. It is not always necessary to provide both anterior column support at L5-S1 and protection of the sacral screws with iliac screws. However, in the most complex problems using both seems to provide the greatest chance for an acceptable radiographic and clinical outcome. Most biomechanical studies have supported the use of anterior column support and iliac fixation to protect sacral screws, suggesting, of the two, that the iliac screws are more valuable. CONCLUSIONS: For many of these cases of both high-grade dysplastic spondylolisthesis and low-grade adult isthmic spondylolisthesis, a reasonable combination of anterior column support and/or iliac screw fixation may be logical to reduce the incidence of failure and need for revision. The biggest concern with using iliac screw fixation is that these screws are prominent in a percentage of patients and the ultimate impact on the sacroiliac joint is not fully investigated. However, at our institution with 5- to 10-year follow-up, the impact on the sacroiliac joint has been minimal.
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