Cases reported "Fractures, Ununited"

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1/71. A metallurgical examination of fractured stainless-steel ASIF tibial plates.

    Between 1970 and 1973 99 tibial fractures were treated by rigid internal fixation with ASIF plates. The fractures were all regarded as sufficiently stable for exercise without weight bearing, thus needing no additional external support during the healing period. Four of the plates broke late in the healing period, after the onset of weight bearing. These fractures had some degree of delayed union with slight resorption of the bone ends, resulting in cyclical bending of the plate. Examination of 2 of the fractured plates by scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis and optical metallography revealed that the primary cause of plate fracture was fatigue. There was no evidence that corrosion fatigue or inclusion content were factors leading to plate fracture.
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keywords = tibia
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2/71. Use of a reversed-flow vascularized pedicle fibular graft for treatment of nonunion of the tibia.

    Ten patients with nonunion of the lower tibia were treated with a vascularized ipsilateral fibular graft, that was transferred distally and based on retrograde peroneal vessel flow. Eight patients were treated for congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia; one had a nonunion subsequent to infection, and another patient had bone and skin loss due to infection. A posterior approach was used to expose the tibia and to harvest the fibula. Bone union and full weight-bearing were achieved in all cases by 9 months. The patients were followed-up for a mean of 1.8 years (range: 1.5 to 3 years).
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keywords = tibia
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3/71. Difficulty in removal of the distal locking device of the Brooker-wills tibial nail.

    Complications in removal of the Brooker-wills tibial nail were encountered in eight patients, and breakage of the distal fins occurred in four of these patients. Although none of the patients experienced residual effects related to removal of the tibial nail, the procedure is associated with potential risks such as infection or nonunion. Three methods of nail removal are described.
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keywords = tibia
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4/71. Nonunion of tibial stress fractures in patients with deformed arthritic knees. Treatment using modular total knee arthroplasty.

    In two years we treated four women with ununited stress fractures of their proximal tibial diaphyses. They all had arthritis and valgus deformity. The stress fractures had been treated elsewhere by non-operative means in three patients and by open reduction and internal fixation in one, but had failed to unite. After treatment with a modular total knee prosthesis with a long tibial stem extension, all the fractures united. A modular total knee prosthesis is suitable for the rare and difficult problem of ununited tibial stress fractures in patients with deformed arthritic knees since it corrects the deformity and the adverse biomechanics at the fracture site, stabilises the fracture and treats the arthritis.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = tibia
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5/71. Fibular nonunion and equinovarus deformity secondary to posterior tibial tendon incarceration in the syndesmosis: a case report after a bimalleolar fracture-dislocation.

    A 39-year-old woman sustained a grade II open bimalleolar fracture-dislocation of the left ankle. Six months after an ORIF of these fractures was performed, she presented with a nonunion of the distal fibula fracture and with a fixed hindfoot equinovarus and forefoot adduction deformity. At surgery for repair of the fibular nonunion, the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) was found to be entrapped in the posterior tibiotalar joint, with a portion of the tendon interposed between the tibia and the fibula in the area of the posterior syndesmosis. After extrication of the PTT, the hindfoot varus and forefoot adduction deformity were corrected. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the English literature of a missed PTT syndesmotic entrapment that resulted in a fibular nonunion and in a fixed foot deformity after an open bimalleolar ankle fracture dislocation.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = tibia
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6/71. The application of arthroscopic principles to bone grafting of delayed union of long bone fractures.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the potential of applying arthroscopic techniques to autogenous bone grafting of long bone fracture delayed union. There were 9 patients in this initial series, including 4 patients (average age, 37 years) with humeral lesions and 5 patients (average age, 25 years) with tibial fractures. There were 6 men and 3 women. Techniques customarily employed in arthroscopy were used to visualize, expose, and deliver the onlay cancellous bone grafts. Bony union occurred in all but 1 patient in an average of 4 months. This patient had a fibrous union and sustained a reinjury that led to successful repeat open bone graft surgery. The arthroscopic approach for bone grafting of certain long bone delayed union appears to be a safe and effective procedure. The procedure is best suited for patients with mechanically stabilized fragments, and it lends itself to those with overlying skin or soft tissue compromise. There are some relative contraindications: grossly unstable fragments, severe malunion, and/or infection.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = tibia
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7/71. Nonunited avulsion fractures of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.

    We report 3 cases of nonunited avulsion fracture of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia. Characteristics of the clinical symptoms were limitation of knee extension, pain at knee extension, and a small amount of anterior instability. For the patient with a normal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the fragment was fixed by sutures with a button after curettage of the fibrous tissue. Two patients underwent endoscopic ACL reconstruction using quadrupled semitendinosus tendon because their ACLs had degenerated. Since the technique of ACL reconstruction under arthroscopic control has been well refined, endoscopic ACL reconstruction is considered to be 1 of the surgical options for nonunited avulsion fracture with symptomatic anterior instability if the ACL is degenerated.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tibia
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8/71. Treatment of infection and non-union after bilateral complicated proximal tibial fracture.

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Complicated tibial fractures form a great challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Non-unions and infections are more common in complicated than in closed fractures. In the present study, we describe a patient case treated for non-union combined to chronic osteomyelitis after bilateral open proximal tibial fractures. MATERIAL AND methods: A female patient born in 1946 was multi-traumatised, when a car hit her as a pedestrian. She went through multiple operations of both tibias due to bilateral complicated proximal fractures. Fractures were stabilised at first with internal fixation, which had to be changed to external fixation due to infection of both sides. During the last operative step a commercial bone graft based on hydroxyapatite and bovine type I fibrillar collagen/tricalcium phosphate ceramic (Collagraft) mixed with autogenous bone marrow was applied. RESULTS: Fractures united after 28 (right tibia) and 22 (left tibia) months of follow-up. At the final follow-up visit 55 months after the initial accident patient walked without any aid and showed no signs of an infection. CONCLUSIONS: The use of commercial mixed xeno-/autogenous-bone graft may provide a feasible alternative in complicated chronic non-unions of the tibia even when an infection is present, especially when autogenous bone is not easily available after previous attempts of bone grafting.
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ranking = 2
keywords = tibia
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9/71. Technique for removal of broken interlocking screws.

    Breakage of an interlocking screw is a known complication in tibial fractures treated by intramedullary nailing. This happens most often in delayed union or nonunion because of the lack of progressive load transference from the nail to the healing bone. To treat this problem, the nail and screws need to be removed. This article describes a simple technique for the removal of broken interlocking screws.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = tibia
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10/71. Simultaneous management of ipsilateral gonarthritis and ununited tibial stress fracture: combined total knee arthroplasty and internal fixation.

    Nonunion of a proximal tibial stress fracture is rare and can be difficult to manage, especially if associated with ipsilateral gonarthritis. Three patients with nonunion of a proximal tibial stress fracture adjacent to an arthritic knee joint were managed by performing simultaneous total knee arthroplasty and internal fixation of the fracture site. The technique involved performing a total knee arthroplasty with angular correction at the site of the extra-articular and intra-articular deformity, bone grafting of the nonunion site, and stabilization of the fracture with a long uncemented intramedullary stemmed tibial component and a unicortical plate. Fibular ostectomy was required during the index surgery in 2 cases to achieve the desired angular correction. In all 3 patients, healing of the nonunion site and limb realignment was achieved. There were no complications or infections associated with the surgery. All patients progressed to full weight bearing at 3 months and had clinical and radiographic union of the nonunion site at 6 months.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = tibia
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