Cases reported "Gait Apraxia"

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1/8. Apraxia of lid opening is alleviated by pallidal stimulation in a patient with Parkinson's disease.

    Apraxia of lid opening (ALO) is a syndrome characterized by a non-paralytic inability to open the eyes at will in the absence of visible contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Here we report that globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation on the right side markedly alleviates ALO as well as gait freezing in a patient with Parkinson's disease. ( info)

2/8. gait apraxia after bilateral supplementary motor area lesion.

    OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at addressing the issue of the precise nature of gait apraxia and the cerebral dysfunction responsible for it. methods: The case of a patient, affected by a bilateral infarction limited to a portion of the anterior cerebral artery territory is reported. The patient's ability to walk was formally assessed by means of a new standardised test. RESULTS: Due to an anomaly within the anterior cerebral artery system, the patient's lesion was centred on the supplementary motor regions of both hemispheres. He presented with clear signs of gait apraxia that could not be accounted for by paresis or other neurological deficits. No signs of any other form of apraxia were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical profile of the patient and the analysis of 49 cases from previous literature suggest that gait apraxia should be considered a clinical entity in its own right and lesions to the supplementary motor areas are responsible for it. ( info)

3/8. Paraneoplastic chorea: case study with autopsy confirmation.

    A 67-year-old man presented with a 7-month history of insidiously progressive chorea, ataxia, and vertigo. neurologic examination revealed deficits referable to the basal nuclei, cerebellar vermis, and vestibular nuclei. Small-cell lung cancer was diagnosed by fine-needle biopsy of a parahilar mass. After chemotherapy, the patient's chorea worsened. Anti-Hu antibodies were present in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Microscopic examination of the brain at autopsy revealed diffuse perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates, microglial activation, and neuronophagia throughout the neuraxis, including the brainstem, cerebellum, lenticular nuclei, striatum, and cerebral cortex. Prominent loss of purkinje cells was seen in the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres to a lesser degree. chorea is extremely rare as a paraneoplastic manifestation of cancer. The florid presentation and the positive findings contrasted with an unremarkable MRI of the brain. This case illustrates the preeminence of symptoms and signs over negative MRI findings in paraneoplastic encephalitis. ( info)

4/8. Late-onset autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy with rimmed vacuoles.

    We report on two siblings with late-onset, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The LGMD was characterized by many rimmed vacuoles and reduced expression of the laminin beta1 chain in skeletal muscle. Both patients developed a progressive wasting and weakness of limb-girdle muscles in the late forties or early fifties; their facial, ocular, bulbar, and cardiac muscles were not involved. Histopathology of skeletal muscles biopsies showed typical dystrophic changes with many rimmed vacuoles. The immunoreactivity of the laminin beta1 chain was reduced in the muscle fibers, while dystrophin, sarcoglycans, beta-dystroglycan, dysferlin, and other laminin components were normally expressed. A mutation search revealed that no mutation existed in the coding region of the calpain 3, telethonin and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmanosamine kinase (GNE) genes. We conclude that this autosomal recessive LGMD is unknown and characterized by its late onset, rimmed vacuoles and reduction of the laminin beta1 chain in muscle fibers. ( info)

5/8. Frontal ataxia in childhood.

    Frontal ataxia may be the result of a unilateral frontal lesion. In this report three cases are presented with ataxia due to right frontal lesions. One case concerns a boy presenting with an unsteady gait and titubation of the trunk, mimicking developmental disequilibrium and with complex partial seizures. It proved to be caused by a small right-sided cavernoma in the middle frontal gyrus. After surgical intervention the symptoms and the seizures disappeared. Two subsequent cases concern teenage patients presenting with headache after an ENT infection and on physical examination mild dysmetric function of the upper limbs and slight disequilibrium, due to right-sided frontal lobe abscesses. After neurosurgical and antibiotic therapy the symptoms were relieved. The frontal origin of ataxia should be considered in children presenting with a "cerebellar syndrome". Frontal gait disorders consist of a clinical pattern of different gait disorders. The syndrome has been mentioned in the literature under different names. Our patients show signs compatible with the term frontal disequilibrium, a clinical pattern of frontal gait disorder. This assumes walking problems characterized by loss of control of motor planning, leading to imbalance. Remarkably, frontal ataxia may mimic developmental delay as demonstrated in the first case and may be the leading mild symptom in extensive frontal lobe damage as demonstrated by the two other cases. We suppose that frontal ataxia is the result of a disturbance in the cerebellar-frontal circuitries and an impairment of executive and planning functions of the basal ganglia-frontal lobe circuitry. ( info)

6/8. Intrafamilial variability in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a progressive adult-onset tremor/ataxia syndrome caused by premutations in the FMR1 gene. In cranial MRI, the most characteristic findings are bilateral T2 hyperintense lesions within the middle cerebellar peduncles. Here we present a sibpair of two affected brothers presenting with very different symptoms (typical FXTAS versus essential tremor-like), disease progression, and MRI findings, illustrating broad intrafamilial variability of FXTAS. Also, their family history suggests further evidence of possible manifestation of FXTAS in women. ( info)

7/8. autopsy case of pure akinesia showing pallidonigro-luysian atrophy.

    A 60-year-old man developed levodopa-resistant pure akinesia. The patient gradually became more akinetic without accompanying gaze palsies, nuchal dystonia, or other parkinsonian features such as rigidity or tremor. At the age of 71, he died of bronchopneumonia. Neuropathologically, bilateral marked neuronal loss and gliosis were restrictedly observed in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra and corpus luysii, whereas mild gliosis without neuronal loss was found in the brain stem. With Gallyas-Braak silver stain, numerous argyrophilic fibrous structures partly surrounding glial nuclei were observed in the three major affected regions. With Bodian stain, however, they were rarely recognized. The structures were partly positive for tau protein. Rare neurofibrillary tangles were found in the three areas and brain stem. They were relatively more numerous but still sparse in the hippocampus and the parahippocampus. The present case was diagnosed as having pallidonigro-luysian atrophy based on two characteristic findings: (i) the distribution of lesions showing neuronal loss with gliosis; and (ii) significant presence of tau-positive argyrophilic fibrous structures related to glia but with the absence of neurofibrillary tangles in the major affected regions and the brain stem. As our present case uniquely showed pure akinesia for the whole clinical course, it is noteworthy to report it here with a full neuropathological evaluation. In addition, a moderate number of diffuse plaques positive for beta-amyloid were distributed in the thalamus. ( info)

8/8. rett syndrome: a case report and overview.

    A 3-year-old girl with rett syndrome is reported in this case report. The aim of this report is to highlight the clinical features of this rare neurodegenerative disorder that mainly affects young girls. A brief review of literature of this disorder is included. ( info)

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