Cases reported "Gait Ataxia"

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1/3. paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration as the first manifestation of cancer.

    paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is a type of paraneoplastic syndrome that primarily affects women with gynecological cancers. patients typically experience pancerebellar symptoms, including gait ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, and truncal and appendicular ataxia. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman with PCD and presumed ovarian cancer who initially complained of ataxia and dysarthria. PCD was diagnosed on the basis of her symptoms, diagnostic imaging, and laboratory work. PCD symptoms may precede the diagnosis of malignancy by months or years. early diagnosis and treatment of these syndromes, including rehabilitation, may result in improvements in quality of life for this population of patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nystagmus
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2/3. friedreich ataxia with minimal GAA expansion presenting as adult-onset spastic ataxia.

    Around a quarter of friedreich ataxia (FA) patients, despite being homozygous for GAA expansion within the FRDA gene, show atypical presentations. Our aim is to describe the case of three brothers with long-term follow-up suffering from late onset FA manifested with spastic ataxia. The three patients belong to a family with occipital dysplasia (OD) and Chiari I malformation previously reported by us. We have carried out serial examinations since 1977. Electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies, and molecular genetic analyses of hereditary ataxias are available in all three patients. Onset of symptoms occurred between 25 and 35 years. The clinical picture consisted of progressive spastic gait, truncal and limb ataxia, dysarthria, nystagmus, hyperreflexia with knee and ankle clonus and extensor plantar response, and mild hypopallesthesia. Ages at present vary between 50 and 59. One patient is wheelchair-bound but the other two are able to walk with support. Leaving OD aside, skeletal anomalies are not prominent. All three patients showed cardiomyopathy. MR imaging revealed atrophy of the cerebellum and spinal cord. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities were normal. Central conduction time of both motor and sensory pathways was delayed or unobtainable. All three patients were homozygous for the GAA expansion, the smaller expanded allele ranging between 131 and 156 repeats. Four heterozygotic carriers were detected among non-ataxic relatives including one with OD; furthermore, an asymptomatic OD patient showed normal genotype. We conclude that adult onset spastic ataxia is a distinctive FA phenotype associated with minimal GAA expansion. This phenotype represents a new cause of selective distal degeneration of central sensory axons. The present concurrence of OD and FA reflects coincidental cosegregation of two different inherited disorders.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nystagmus
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3/3. Familial positional downbeat nystagmus and cerebellar ataxia: clinical and pathologic findings.

    A family with progressive cerebellar ataxia is reported. The earlier signs of cerebellar dysfunction was positional downbeat nystagmus (PDBN). An autopsy of one member with PDBN, who died early in the disease of unrelated causes, showed loss of purkinje cells primarily in the nodulus.
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ranking = 5
keywords = nystagmus
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