Cases reported "Galactorrhea"

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1/50. Traumatic aneurysm and carotid-cavernous fistula following transsphenoidal approach to a pituitary adenoma: treatment by transcranial operation.

    A 39-year old woman presented with galactorrhoea. magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intrasellar tumour. During transsphenoidal surgery to remove the tumour, arterial bleeding occurred from the right internal carotid artery (ICA). The bleeding was stopped by packing with Surgicel. The operation was discontinued at this point and the intrasellar tumour was not removed. Four-vessel angiography was performed on the third day after the operation, revealing a traumatic (false) ICA aneurysm and a low-flow carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) on the right side. The patient did not have any neurological deficit, and was re-operated on transcranially. Both the traumatic ICA aneurysm and the CCF were excluded from the circulation by a Sundt-Kees cuff clip. The patency of the ICA was preserved.
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keywords = sella
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2/50. Treatment of prolactin-secreting pituitary tumours in young women by needle implantation of radioactive yttrium.

    Twenty-one young female patients are described who presented with amenorrhoea, galactorrhoea or infertility, and were treated by 90Y pituitary implantation of 20,000 rads. There was no morbidity. In all patients serum prolactin values were elevated and radiographs of the pituitary fossa were abnormal. Observations are available for 1--76 months (mean 27) after implantation. The median fall in prolactin values was 60 per cent while there was no deterioration in pituitary function if normal pre-operatively. luteinizing hormone values, both basally and following gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, rose to normal after operation; several instances of sellar remodelling were observed radiologically, and no instance of relapse was found radiologically, biochemically or clinically. Thirteen patients desiring fertility have been observed since implantation; so far nine have become pregnant, in three instances without any additional therapy; since four patients became pregnant twice, a total of 13 pregnancies have occurred. No case of tumour expansion was observed during pregnancy. 90Y implantation can be considered as a therapeutic procedure in young female patients requiring fertility which is competitive with surgical methods, and together with a short course of bromocriptine if needed, could prove to be the treatment of choice.
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3/50. The spectrum and significance of primary hypophysitis.

    Hypophysitis can present clinically as a mass lesion of the sella turcica. Secondary hypophysitis occurs in cases where a definite etiologic agent or process inciting the inflammatory reaction can be identified. In contrast, primary hypophysitis refers to inflammation confined to the pituitary gland with no identifiable etiologic associations. We report three cases of primary hypophysitis to illustrate the spectrum of three clinicopathological entities that encompass this disease: lymphocytic hypophysitis, granulomatous hypophysitis, and xanthomatous hypophysitis. Our three patients underwent surgery, with variable response. However, conservative, supportive treatment with or without surgical decompression is generally favored over aggressive and extensive surgical resection that results in hypopituitarism. We conclude that the optimal management of patients with hyophysitis requires a high index of suspicion before extensive surgical resection. Histological confirmation of the diagnosis of hypophysitis can be obtained by performing a biopsy or by requesting an intraoperative frozen section consultation.
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keywords = sella turcica, turcica, sella
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4/50. galactorrhea as the sole presenting symptom of a posterior third ventricular epidermoid cyst.

    BACKGROUND: brain tumors that are remote from the sellar and parasellar region rarely produce galactorrhea. CASE DESCRIPTION: galactorrhea was the sole presenting symptom in a patient with a posterior third ventricular epidermoid cyst. On investigation, her serum prolactin level was mildly elevated. After radical excision of the tumour, the spontaneous galactorrhea stopped and the serum prolactin level decreased. CONCLUSION: Because of the clinical and biochemical response seen after surgery, we speculate that the galactorrhea was caused by the presence of the tumor. We postulate that the pressure exerted by the tumor on the diencephalic structures was probably the cause of galactorrhea in our patient.
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5/50. Spontaneous remission in idiopathic hyperprolactinemia.

    In this report we describe a 37 year old lady who was demonstrated to have hyperprolactinemia causing amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome. Computerized tomography scan done twice did not reveal any sellar or suprasellar abnormality and there was no clinical or biochemical evidence of primary hypothyroidism. She had regression of galactorrhea, resumed regular menstrual cycles, and conceived twice on bromocriptine therapy. Following her second delivery she noticed spontaneous remission of galactorrhea and, prolactin levels estimated multiple times were normal.
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6/50. empty sella syndrome presenting as galactorrhoea.

    A prolactin secreting tumour is the commonest cause of the amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea syndrome. Galactorrhoea is a rare presentation of an empty sella syndrome. The empty sella syndrome commonly presents with headache and visual impairment and occasionally with endocrine disturbances in hypertensive middle aged women. The authors present a case of hyperprolactinemia resulting in galactorrhoea in a middle aged lady associated with a primary empty sella syndrome.
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7/50. Pituitary function testing in amenorrhea-galactorrhea-hyperprolactinemia.

    Fifteen patients, age 16 to 55, presented with amenorrhea-galactorrhea-hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary function was evaluated by bolus injections of insulin, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in 13 and by LHRH and TRH in 2. Responses to growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol (F), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin were measured. GH, TSH, and F responses were normal in most cases. LH responses were decreased (P less than 0.025) in patients with abnormal sellar tomography, whereas FSH responses tended to decrease with elevated prolactin levels. Prolactin responses were absent in five of the seven cases which could be evaluated. The clinical value of such testing appears to be limited to an individualized basis, although some prognosis of ovulatory response to bromocriptine therapy may be obtained from the gonadotropin response.
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8/50. Unusual case presentation of lichen simplex chronicus, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and nonpuerperal hyperprolactinemia-galactorrhea.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the association of nonpuerperal galactorrhea and severe pruritus with clinical stage IIB Hodgkin's lymphoma. methods: We present a detailed history, findings on physical examination, laboratory data, and results of diagnostic imaging in a 25-year-old woman. A review of the related literature and speculations about possible etiologic factors for this association are provided. RESULTS: Dermatologic evaluation of the patient revealed lichen simplex chronicus with multiple excoriations on the anterior chest area and lower extremities. High serum prolactin concentrations and easily expressible galactorrhea were present. magnetic resonance imaging of the sella with 1-mm cuts, however, revealed a normal pituitary gland. Computed tomography showed multiple enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, and a left supraclavicular lymph node biopsy revealed the presence of reed-sternberg cells and lymphocyte alterations consistent with the diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma. After one cycle of chemotherapy for management of the lymphoma, parallel reductions in serum prolactin concentrations and galactorrhea were noted. CONCLUSION: Possible causes for this syndrome include afferent mammary nerve stimulation resulting from scratching of pruritic skin and cytokine-induced hypersecretion of prolactin attributable to the lymphoma. Although uncommon, this syndrome may serve as an important harbinger of developing Hodgkin's lymphoma, and its disappearance may signify a therapeutic response.
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keywords = sella
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9/50. Primary empty sella, galactorrhea, hyperprolactinemia and renal tubular acidosis.

    Discussed here is a 41 year old woman with galactorrhea associated with the empty sella syndrome and mild renal tubular acidosis. Basal serum prolactin (PRL) levels were normal, but a 24 hour serum PRL secretory profile demonstrated an increased mean PRL concentration. serum PRL was appropriately suppressed by the administration of L-dopa; however, chlorpromazine stimulation resulted in a blunted serum PRL response. Pituitary luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, ACTH and thyroid stimulating hormone levels were normal. Thus, galactorrhea associated with an enlarged sella does not establish the diagnosis of a pituitary tumor, and pneumoencephalography must be performed to exclude the empty sella syndrome.
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ranking = 3.5
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10/50. Primary amenorrhea-galactorrhea with hyperprolactinemia and huge pituitary enlargement in juvenile primary hypothyroidism.

    We report a girl with juvenile primary hypothyroidism revealed by growth retardation and a syndrome of primary amenorrhea-galactorrhea with hyperprolactinemia and suprasellar pituitary enlargement. Resolution of the pituitary enlargement and the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome occurred after thyroid hormone replacement. No similar observation has been reported earlier in juvenile hypothyroidism.
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