Cases reported "Gallbladder Diseases"

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1/8. Advanced adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder with bilio-biliary fistula: an uncommon case treated by hepatopancreatoduodenectomy.

    A 70 year-old female, who presented with jaundice and abdominal pain, was found to have an advanced gallbladder cancer involving the liver parenchyma, duodenum, and transverse colon. This was complicated by a bilio-biliary fistula between the gallbladder and both the right and left hepatic ducts. After obtaining an accurate pre-operative diagnosis, the patient underwent hepatopancreatoduodenectomy (HPD) with lymph node dissection around the hepatic pedicle, celiac trunk, aorta, and inferior vena cava. Histologic examination revealed adenosquamous carcinoma. This rare variant accounts for 3.5% of gallbladder cancers, and is associated with a worse prognosis than adenocarcinoma. The patient is in good condition without any signs of recurrence 42 months after the HPD. In this case report, we discuss the histological type and internal biliary fistula with regard to the literature, and the usefulness of an aggressive surgical procedure such as HPD with extended lymph node dissection which can improve survival and quality of life in selected patients.
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2/8. MRI of perforated gall bladder.

    Gall bladder perforation is a dreaded complication of acute cholecystitis that, if not diagnosed early in the course, might have a poor prognosis. Both CT and ultrasonography have been used until now extensively for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but diagnosis of perforation is always difficult. Magnetic resonance, by its superior soft tissue resolution and multiplanar capability, is a better modality and should fare better than ultrasonography and CT, as demonstrated in our case. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates the wall of the gall bladder and defects to a much better advantage and more convincingly. In addition, MR colangiopancreatography images demonstrate the biliary tree better than other modalities. We suggest that in the case of acute cholecystitis, if perforation is suspected and CT and ultrasonography are not conclusive, MR should be the modality of choice. It can be used as a first line of investigation; however, it might not be cost-effective.
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3/8. Metastatic endophthalmitis caused by clostridium perfringens.

    A case of metastatic endophthalmitis due to clostridium perfringens originating from the biliary tract is reported. The grave visual prognosis and the importance of early detection and treatment of the primary source of infection are emphasised.
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4/8. Diagnosis of gallbladder perforation in acute acalculous cholecystitis in critically ill patients.

    In the presence of ascites ultrasound is not appropriate to distinguish between gallbladder perforation and acute acalculous cholecystitis. However, the correct and early diagnosis of gallbladder perforation is important for the treatment and prognosis. We report 4 critically ill patients with ascites. All patients had evidence of gallbladder perforation by ultrasound and underwent cholecystectomy: 2 patients had gallbladder perforation, but 2 had acalculous cholecystitis without perforation. Markedly elevated serum alkaline phosphatase was the only discriminating finding indicating gallbladder perforation.
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5/8. Primary hydatid disease of the gallbladder: a rare clinical entity.

    Hydatid disease is endemic in greece, and has been known from Hippocrates' time to cause cysts in the liver. We report here three very rare cases of primary gallbladder hydatid disease without prior history or evidence of concurrent disease activity in any other location. To our knowledge, only two previous reports exist, each of one patient suffering from primary gallbladder hydatid disease. Unlike the insidious hydatid cysts of the liver, gallbladder hydatidosis in our patients was associated with early diagnosis, due to gallbladder dysfunction symptoms presenting early in its course. Moreover, the size of gallbladder cysts compared to liver cysts at diagnosis was small (maximal diameter, <5 cm), making total cyst excision along with cholecystectomy feasible for all of our patients. During long-term follow up of the patients (up to 10 years), no disease recurrences were noted. We provide supporting evidence that primary gallbladder hydatidosis presents a different pathophysiological and clinical course, having better prognosis, when compared with the usual liver disease.
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6/8. gallbladder torsion. Case report.

    gallbladder torsion is a rare surgical emergency occurring primarily in elderly women. The anatomical background is a variation in the attachment of the gallbladder to the inferior margin of the liver. Increasing life span will probably lead to an increasing number of cases, and gallbladder torsion must be kept in mind in patients with sudden onset of pain in the upper right quadrant, nausea, vomiting, and a palpable mass. None of the laboratory routines or non-invasive examinations enables one to make the right preoperative diagnosis. Treatment is cholecystectomy. Promptly treated, the prognosis is good.
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7/8. Torsion of the gallbladder.

    Two patients are presented with torsion of the gallbladder, a rare disorder mainly seen in elderly women. The postoperative course was uneventful in both patients. The anatomic abnormalities which allow torsion of the gallbladder are discussed together with some etiological factors. The prognosis of this disorder is favorable when cholecystectomy is performed without delay.
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8/8. gallbladder volvulus: a case report.

    gallbladder volvulus, a rare disease generally affecting older aged women, is generally due to an abnormal anatomical fixation of the gallbladder. As clinical and radiological signs are poor the diagnosis is generally made at laparotomy. The prognosis is excellent when early surgical treatment is performed.
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