Cases reported "Gallbladder Diseases"

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1/429. Perforation of the gallbladder: analysis of 19 cases.

    Perforation of the gallbladder occurred in 19 (3.8%) of 496 patients with acute cholecystitis treated at one hospital in an 8-year period. The average age of the 19 patients was 69 years and the female:male ratio was 3:2. Most had a history suggestive of gallbladder disease and most had coexisting cardiac, pulmonary, renal, nutritional or metabolic disease. The duration of the present illness was short, perforation occurring within 72 hours of the onset of symptoms in half the patients; the diagnosis was not suspected preoperatively in any. In the elderly patient with acute cholecystitis who has a long history of gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy should be performed early, before gangrene and perforation of the gallbladder can occur. ( info)

2/429. Fibropolycystic disease of the hepatobiliary system and kidneys.

    This complicated case of fibropolycystic disease of the hepatobiliary system and kidneys was ably and incisively analyzed by Professor Sheila Sherlock. Her clinical acumen was revealed by her ability to differentiate congenital hepatic fibrosis, Caroli's disease, and adult polycystic disease of the liver and kidney. Interesting histologic features of this case included hepatic fibrosis with intact limiting plates anc central veins and the presence of bile plugs in the ducts, but the absence of bile statsis in the parenchyma. A percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram demonstrated the dilated intrahepatic and extrahepatic ducts. Washing out the "gunk" from the biliary tract by T-tube drainage has great limitations in this type of case. Therefore, Dr. Adson suggested irrigation of the biliary ductal system using tubed placed transhepatically, plus a wide choledojejunostomy. Dr. Sherlock questioned this surgical approach. The use of chenodeoxycholic acid for this "gunk" was suggested. In spite of the dilated ducts and pathologic changes in the liver, the patient was not jandiced and did not have stones in her biliary tract. The genetics of this patient's problems was discussed. ( info)

3/429. Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula presenting in the gluteal region.

    The complication of cholecystocutaneous fistula secondary to calculus cholelithiasis is an extremely rare occurrence. The incidence has further decreased with the advent of broad-spectrum antibiotics, ultrasonography, and safe and early surgical treatment of biliary tract disease. We are reporting a rare cholecystocutaneous fistula presenting in the right-side gluteal region below the iliac crest. ( info)

4/429. Choledochoduodenal fistula at the anterior wall of the duodenal bulb: a rare complication of duodenal ulcer.

    A 38 year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the chief complaint of epigastralgia. His laboratory data revealed leukocytosis and increased serum amylase, and abdominal ultrasonography revealed diffuse swelling of the pancreas. Thus, he was diagnosed as having acute pancreatitis. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography showed pneumobilia in the gallbladder and the common bile duct. Gastroduodenal fiberscopy demonstrated peptic ulcer scars around a foramen with smooth margins at the anterior wall of the duodenal bulb. The bile juice flowed from the bottom of the foramen. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed the fistula between the common bile duct and the anterior wall of the duodenal bulb, but not the posterior wall. However, there was no pancreatico-biliary maljunction and no stones in the gallbladder or bile duct. This is a rare case of choledochoduodenal fistula at the anterior wall of the duodenal bulb caused by duodenal peptic ulcer disease. ( info)

5/429. gallbladder adenomyomatosis: findings on MRI.

    BACKGROUND: To describe the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of gallbladder adenomyomatosis in two cases. methods: Two patients had abdominal MRI findings of gallbladder adenomyomatosis confirmed at cholecystectomy. RESULTS: The surgical specimen showed findings typical of adenomyomatosis, including marked thickening of both epithelial and muscular elements with multiple Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. On gadolinium-enhanced spoiled gradient-echo images and single-shot fast spin-echo images, mild gallbladder wall thickening with multiple intramural cystic components from Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses were readily visualized. CONCLUSION: Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder can be detected and diagnosed from MRI findings. ( info)

6/429. Pseudoaneurysm in gall bladder fossa following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    A 32-year-old lady presented with severe hematemesis and melena after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Initial ultrasonography and spiral CT suggested a vascular lesion in the gall bladder fossa. Selective hepatic angiography confirmed the presence of a pseudoaneurysm close to the surgical clip and filling through the right hepatic artery. This was treated with coil embolization, resulting in cessation of hematemesis and amelioration of symptoms. ( info)

7/429. Advanced adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder with bilio-biliary fistula: an uncommon case treated by hepatopancreatoduodenectomy.

    A 70 year-old female, who presented with jaundice and abdominal pain, was found to have an advanced gallbladder cancer involving the liver parenchyma, duodenum, and transverse colon. This was complicated by a bilio-biliary fistula between the gallbladder and both the right and left hepatic ducts. After obtaining an accurate pre-operative diagnosis, the patient underwent hepatopancreatoduodenectomy (HPD) with lymph node dissection around the hepatic pedicle, celiac trunk, aorta, and inferior vena cava. Histologic examination revealed adenosquamous carcinoma. This rare variant accounts for 3.5% of gallbladder cancers, and is associated with a worse prognosis than adenocarcinoma. The patient is in good condition without any signs of recurrence 42 months after the HPD. In this case report, we discuss the histological type and internal biliary fistula with regard to the literature, and the usefulness of an aggressive surgical procedure such as HPD with extended lymph node dissection which can improve survival and quality of life in selected patients. ( info)

8/429. Drug-induced linear iga bullous dermatosis associated with ceftriaxone- and metronidazole-specific T cells.

    BACKGROUND: Previous reports indicate that various drugs may induce linear iga bullous dermatosis (LABD). The role of T cells and T-cell-derived cytokines in the pathomechanism of such skin lesions, however, has remained unclear. OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of LABD induced by ceftriaxone and metronidazole in an 80-year-old female suffering from cholelithiasis with concomitant cholecystitis and provide evidence that drug-specific T cells and their cytokines may contribute to the development of LABD lesions. methods: We performed flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood T cells during LABD, epicutaneous testing (scratch-patch) and lymphocyte proliferation analysis (LTT) with the suspected drugs, routine histological and immunohistochemical examination of the acute skin lesions during LABD as well as of the positive epicutaneous test reactions and measurement of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma) in the supernatant of the LTT cultures. RESULTS: An increased number mainly of activated CD8 cells was detected in the peripheral blood during LABD. T cell sensitization to ceftriaxone and metronidazole was confirmed by epicutaneous testing and LTT, indicating that these methods may be useful in identifying the causative drugs. Enhanced cytokine levels, particularly of IL-5, were found in the supernatant of the LTT stimulated with ceftriaxone and metronidazole. Furthermore, in situ expression of IL-5 was confirmed in the patient's skin lesions by immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that in addition to IgA antibodies drug-specific T cells and their subsequent release of cytokines may play an important role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced LABD. ( info)

9/429. abdominal pain in children.

    Chronic vague abdominal pain is an extremely common complaint in children over 5 years, with a peak incidence in the 8 to 10 year group. In over 90 per cent of the cases no serious underlying organic disease will be discovered. Most disease states can be ruled out by a careful history, a meticulous physical examination, and a few simple laboratory tests such as urinalysis, sedimentation rate, hemoglobin, white blood count determination, and examination of a blood smear. If organic disease is present there are often clues in the history and the examination. The kidney is often the culprit--an intravenous pyelogram should be done if disease is suspected. barium enema is the next most valuable test. Duodenal ulcers and abdominal epilepsy are rare and are over-diagnosed. If no organic cause is found, the parents must be convinced that the pain is real, and that "functional" does not mean "imaginary." This is best explained by comparing with "headache"--the headache resulting from stress and tension hurts every bit as much as the headache caused by a brain tumor or other intracranial pathology. Having convinced the patient and his parents that no serious disease exists, no further investigation should be carried out unless new signs or symptoms appear. The child must be returned to full activity immediately. ( info)

10/429. Aberrant pancreatic tissue accompanied by heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gall-bladder.

    A 5 mm pancreatic heterotopia was incidentally identified in the gall-bladder with small cholesterol polyps following cholecystectomy in an asymptomatic 49-year-old female. Microscopically, inflammatory changes in the wall were minimal. The aberrant tissue consisted of acini and ducts but did not have islet formation. Heterotopic gastric mucosal tissue with a mixture of foveolar cells and pyloric glands was seen at the orifice of the pancreatic heterotopia. Islet peptide-immunoreactive endocrine cells were scattered among the pancreatic parenchyma, and the gastric-type gland contained cells positive for gastrin, somatostatin and glucagon. A noteworthy finding was the immunohistochemical detection of a single insulin-containing cell in the pyloric gland. ( info)
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