Cases reported "Gallbladder Neoplasms"

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1/161. An extrahepatic bile duct metastasis from a gallbladder cancer mimicking Mirizzi's syndrome.

    We report a case of an extrahepatic bile duct metastasis from a gallbladder cancer that mimicked Mirizzi's syndrome on cholangiography. A 67-yr-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute calculous cholecystitis. As obstructive jaundice developed after the admission, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed to ameliorate the jaundice and to evaluate the biliary system. Tube cholangiography revealed bile duct obstruction at the hepatic hilus, and extrinsic compression of the lateral aspect of the common hepatic duct, with nonvisualization of the gallbladder. No impacted cystic duct stone was visualized on CT or ultrasonography. laparotomy revealed a gallbladder tumor as well as an extrahepatic bile duct tumor. We diagnosed that the latter was a metastasis from the gallbladder cancer, based on the histopathological features. This case is unique in that the extrahepatic bile duct metastasis obstructed both the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct, giving the appearance of Mirizzi's syndrome on cholangiography. Metastatic bile duct tumors that mimic Mirizzi's syndrome have not been previously reported. The presence of this condition should be suspected in patients with the cholangiographic features of Mirizzi's syndrome, when the CT or ultrasonographic findings fail to demonstrate an impacted cystic duct stone.
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2/161. Unexpected gallbladder cancer after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an emerging problem? Reflections on four cases.

    gallbladder cancer (GC) has been reported in 0.3-1.5% of cholecystectomies. Since the introduction of laparoscopic surgery, cholecystectomies have increased and occult GC may therefore be more frequent. Herein we analyze our own experience to determine whether there was an increase in GC. We also evaluate the risk factors for this outcome. Four patients with GC undiagnosed before surgery (four of 602 cases, or 0.66%) were submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The percentage in patients who underwent open surgery was 0.28% (two of 714 cases). Without reoperation, three patients died in the laparoscopic group and one is alive at 12 months. Trocar site metastasis was not observed. Although the percentage of GC (0.28% versus 0.66%) increased, the percentage is still in the referred average. Undiagnosed GC is on the increase. Examination of the gallbladder and a frozen section, if necessary, are recommended. Calcified gallbladders, age >70 years, a long history of stones, and a thickened gallbladder all represent significant risk factors.
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3/161. A long-term survival patient with advanced gallbladder cancer massively metastasizing to the liver.

    A case of gallbladder carcinoma was reported. A 42-year-old woman was admitted with epigastralgia. Abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography, and other diagnostic modalities suggested gallbladder carcinoma with multiple liver metastases. These findings indicated no surgical procedure because of the advanced nature of her disease. After the hepatic arterial chemoinfusion therapy, her multiple liver metastatic lesions showed a decrease in size and number. Therefore, extended left lobectomy of the liver with gallbladder and bile duct resection were performed. Five years after initial operation, a solitary liver metastatic lesion (S5) was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Partial resection of the liver was performed for the liver metastasis, and her postoperative recovery was uneventful and had a good follow-up course. One year after the second operation bone metastases occurred, therefore, peroral administration of UFT (tegafur uracil) and radiation therapy for the metastatic lesions of sternum and lumbar vertebra (L1) were performed.
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4/161. Advanced adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder with bilio-biliary fistula: an uncommon case treated by hepatopancreatoduodenectomy.

    A 70 year-old female, who presented with jaundice and abdominal pain, was found to have an advanced gallbladder cancer involving the liver parenchyma, duodenum, and transverse colon. This was complicated by a bilio-biliary fistula between the gallbladder and both the right and left hepatic ducts. After obtaining an accurate pre-operative diagnosis, the patient underwent hepatopancreatoduodenectomy (HPD) with lymph node dissection around the hepatic pedicle, celiac trunk, aorta, and inferior vena cava. Histologic examination revealed adenosquamous carcinoma. This rare variant accounts for 3.5% of gallbladder cancers, and is associated with a worse prognosis than adenocarcinoma. The patient is in good condition without any signs of recurrence 42 months after the HPD. In this case report, we discuss the histological type and internal biliary fistula with regard to the literature, and the usefulness of an aggressive surgical procedure such as HPD with extended lymph node dissection which can improve survival and quality of life in selected patients.
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5/161. gallbladder carcinoma with choledochoduodenal fistula: a case report with surgical treatment.

    A 79 year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of upper abdominal pain and nausea. A mobile tumor was palpable in the right upper abdomen. Abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography and celiac angiography revealed a gallbladder tumor. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a fistula 1.5 cm oral to the orifice of the papilla of Vater, dilatation of the common bile duct, and a filling defect in the gallbladder. Pancreatoduodenectomy associated with reconstruction using Imanaga's method was performed under a pre-operative diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma with choledochoduodenal fistula. The gallbladder contained a tumor and two bilirubin stones impacted in the orifice of the duodenal papilla. Histological studies confirmed that the gallbladder tumor was a mucinous adenocarcinoma and had not infiltrated the bile duct. We speculated that choledochoduodenal fistula stimulated the development of cancer due to chronic irritation from pancreatic juice reflux.
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6/161. Gonadal vein graft for hepatic artery reconstruction.

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Resection of hepatic arteries is often obligatory on resecting pancreatic, gastric and hepatobiliary malignancies. hepatic artery reconstruction is required to preserve liver function and blood flow to the bile duct. We applied the gonadal vein to hepatic artery reconstruction. METHODOLOGY: hepatic artery reconstruction using a gonadal vein graft was performed in two patients: one with gallbladder cancer and the other with recurrent gastric cancer. RESULTS: The right ovarian vein, 2 mm in diameter and 4 cm in length, was grafted for reconstruction between the proper hepatic and the posterior hepatic artery in one patient who underwent modified central hepatic bisegmetectomy and common bile duct resection. The left spermatic vein, 3 mm in diameter and 6 cm in length, was grafted for reconstruction between the celiac artery and the right hepatic artery in the other, who underwent upper abdominal exenteration. The former graft was occluded due to tumor invasion at 4 months after surgery, the latter one was patent at 8 weeks after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The gonadal vein had an ideal diameter and sufficient length to accomplish hepatic arterial reconstruction. The gonadal vein graft will be a new and preferable addition to the selection of an optimal graft for hepatic arterial reconstruction.
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7/161. Double cancer of the gallbladder and common bile duct associated with an anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal junction without a choledochal cyst: report of a case.

    We report herein the case of a 37-year-old woman found to have double cancer of the gallbladder and common bile duct associated with an anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal junction (APBDJ) without a choledochal cyst (CC). Abdominal ultrasonography showed an isoechoic mass in the gallbladder, and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tubography revealed incomplete obstruction in the upper portion of the common bile duct and APBDJ. The patient underwent cholecystectomy, partial hepatic resection, pancreatoduodenectomy, and portal vein reconstruction. Pathological examination of the tumors from the gallbladder and bile duct revealed papillary carcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, respectively, and direct continuity was not observed between the tumors. A review of the literature on six cases of multiple primary carcinoma of the biliary tract associated with APBDJ without CC is presented following this case report. Double cancer of the biliary tract was found synchronously in five patients and metachronously in one. gallbladder cancer showed subserosal invasion in four patients, while bile duct cancer invaded the pancreas in one patient and reached the serosa in two patients. Considering the potential for cancer to arise in the biliary tract and the difficulties associated with monitoring it, cholecystectomy and resection of the extrahepatic common bile duct may be the most appropriate treatment for patients with an APBDJ without a CC.
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8/161. A case of classical carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder: review of the Japanese published works.

    A 58 year-old man was admitted to Kimitsu Chuo Hospital complaining of epigastralgia. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a polypoid lesion at the neck of the gallbladder. Given the pre-operative diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma, we resected the gallbladder along with the extrahepatic bile duct. There was a papillary tumor (25 x 16 mm) at the neck of the gallbladder. Histopathological examinations showed a subserosal nodular proliferation of uniform small tumor cells. Grimelius staining was slightly positive and Fontana-Masson staining was negative. Most of the tumor cells stained positively for chromogranin a and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and some of the tumor cells were positive for pancreatic polypeptide. The presence of neurosecretory intracytoplasmic granules was proven ultrastructurally. It was diagnosed as a classical carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder. We reviewed the Japanese reported cases and discussed the difference in clinicopathological findings between classical and atypical carcinoid tumors of the gallbladder. Classical carcinoids of the gallbladder have neither a metastatic nor invasive character, and an extremely favorable prognosis compared with atypical carcinoids. The difference in character between classical and atypical carcinoids of the gallbladder is thought to be derived from their histogenetic origin.
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9/161. A patient with undifferentiated carcinoma of gallbladder presenting with hemobilia.

    hemobilia is relatively rare among hemorrhages in the digestive tract, and hemobilia caused by tumors of the biliary tract is particularly rare. We treated a 74-year-old-man with undifferentiated carcinoma of the gallbladder presenting with hemobilia. During hospitalization for neurogenic bladder at the Department of urology, he showed progressive anemia. Since hemorrhage in the digestive tract was suspected, endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract was performed, and bleeding from the papilla of Vater was observed. On ultrasound examination, findings were indicative of cholecystic cancer, and hemorrhage from the cystic duct was found on percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy. On perioral cholecystoscopy, however, masses of coagulated blood were found only in the gallbladder. Abnormalities such as dense staining of tumors or extravasation were not found on angiography. The patient died of hepatic failure due to rapid invasion of the liver by the tumor, associated with biliary infection and disseminated intravascular coagulation. At autopsy, a nodal tumor was found in the gallbladder, and the cavity of the gallbladder was filled with coagulated masses of blood. Direct invasion of the tumor to the liver, diaphragm, and transverse colon was found. The histopathological diagnosis was undifferentiated carcinoma (pleomorphic large-cell type).
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10/161. Small-cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: report of a case.

    We report herein the case of an 81-year-old woman in whom a mass in the gallbladder was revealed by an ultrasound examination conducted as part of a follow-up study for a silent gallstone. The mass showed evidence of invasion into the adjacent liver parenchyma. Under the tentative diagnosis of malignant neoplastic disease originating in the gallbladder, a cholecystectomy with partial hepatectomy was performed. Histological examination of the tumor confirmed a diagnosis of small-cell carcinoma of the gallbladder, which is considered to be a rare type of neoplasm.
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