Cases reported "Gallbladder Neoplasms"

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1/141. A case of primary adenosquamous/squamous cell carcinoma of gallbladder directly invaded duodenum.

    A rare case of primary gallbladder carcinoma is reported. A 67 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for treatment of suspected duodenal carcinoma. A series of radiographic examinations demonstrated a giant tumor involving the duodenum, gallbladder, pancreatic head, and transverse colon. These extensions made it difficult to identify the primary origin of the carcinoma. Pancreatoduodenectomy, cholecystectomy, and resection of the transverse colon were performed. Macroscopically, ulcerative lesions were seen in both the gallbladder and the duodenum. Microscopic examination revealed adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder, invasive of the adjacent organs, including circumferential invasion of the second portion of the duodenum. The patient tolerated the operation well and was discharged 28 days post-operatively, but died of liver metastasis 4 months after surgery. Local invasion of the surrounding tissues is characteristic of adenosquamous/squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder. Although surgery for cure is deemed possible, the rapid growth rate of this type of tumor may cast doubt on the value of extensive radical surgery.
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2/141. A long-term survival patient with advanced gallbladder cancer massively metastasizing to the liver.

    A case of gallbladder carcinoma was reported. A 42-year-old woman was admitted with epigastralgia. Abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography, and other diagnostic modalities suggested gallbladder carcinoma with multiple liver metastases. These findings indicated no surgical procedure because of the advanced nature of her disease. After the hepatic arterial chemoinfusion therapy, her multiple liver metastatic lesions showed a decrease in size and number. Therefore, extended left lobectomy of the liver with gallbladder and bile duct resection were performed. Five years after initial operation, a solitary liver metastatic lesion (S5) was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Partial resection of the liver was performed for the liver metastasis, and her postoperative recovery was uneventful and had a good follow-up course. One year after the second operation bone metastases occurred, therefore, peroral administration of UFT (tegafur uracil) and radiation therapy for the metastatic lesions of sternum and lumbar vertebra (L1) were performed.
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3/141. An effective pre-operative chemoimmunotherapy regimen against advanced gallbladder carcinoma: a case report.

    We designed a chemoimmunotherapy regimen with a single dose of mitomycin C (MMC) followed by subsequent OK-432 injections, since the ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) to generate OK-432 activated killer cells had previously been shown to be augmented by MMC in cancer patients. We herein report on a case with far advanced gallbladder carcinoma who demonstrated a remarkable response to this chemoimmunotherapy, and thus underwent a curative resection. A 67 year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed as having gallbladder carcinoma with invasion to the liver and portal vein, as well as obvious lymph node metastasis. Since these findings suggested the tumor to be unresectable at that time, our chemoimmunotherapy regimen with MMC and OK-432 was administered. After four courses of therapy, a computed tomography (CT) scan revealed the disappearance of both tumor invasion to the surrounding organs and lymph node metastasis, which therefore prompted us to attempt a radical tumor resection. The histology of the resected specimen revealed that the majority of cancer cells had been killed by the pre-operative therapy and that only remnants of viable cancer cells were found in a part of the neck of the gallbladder and in 2 regional lymph nodes. This experience thus suggests the effectiveness of our chemoimmunotherapy regimen against gallbladder carcinoma.
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4/141. Advanced adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder with bilio-biliary fistula: an uncommon case treated by hepatopancreatoduodenectomy.

    A 70 year-old female, who presented with jaundice and abdominal pain, was found to have an advanced gallbladder cancer involving the liver parenchyma, duodenum, and transverse colon. This was complicated by a bilio-biliary fistula between the gallbladder and both the right and left hepatic ducts. After obtaining an accurate pre-operative diagnosis, the patient underwent hepatopancreatoduodenectomy (HPD) with lymph node dissection around the hepatic pedicle, celiac trunk, aorta, and inferior vena cava. Histologic examination revealed adenosquamous carcinoma. This rare variant accounts for 3.5% of gallbladder cancers, and is associated with a worse prognosis than adenocarcinoma. The patient is in good condition without any signs of recurrence 42 months after the HPD. In this case report, we discuss the histological type and internal biliary fistula with regard to the literature, and the usefulness of an aggressive surgical procedure such as HPD with extended lymph node dissection which can improve survival and quality of life in selected patients.
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5/141. gallbladder carcinoma with choledochoduodenal fistula: a case report with surgical treatment.

    A 79 year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of upper abdominal pain and nausea. A mobile tumor was palpable in the right upper abdomen. Abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography and celiac angiography revealed a gallbladder tumor. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a fistula 1.5 cm oral to the orifice of the papilla of Vater, dilatation of the common bile duct, and a filling defect in the gallbladder. Pancreatoduodenectomy associated with reconstruction using Imanaga's method was performed under a pre-operative diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma with choledochoduodenal fistula. The gallbladder contained a tumor and two bilirubin stones impacted in the orifice of the duodenal papilla. Histological studies confirmed that the gallbladder tumor was a mucinous adenocarcinoma and had not infiltrated the bile duct. We speculated that choledochoduodenal fistula stimulated the development of cancer due to chronic irritation from pancreatic juice reflux.
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6/141. A case of classical carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder: review of the Japanese published works.

    A 58 year-old man was admitted to Kimitsu Chuo Hospital complaining of epigastralgia. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a polypoid lesion at the neck of the gallbladder. Given the pre-operative diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma, we resected the gallbladder along with the extrahepatic bile duct. There was a papillary tumor (25 x 16 mm) at the neck of the gallbladder. Histopathological examinations showed a subserosal nodular proliferation of uniform small tumor cells. Grimelius staining was slightly positive and Fontana-Masson staining was negative. Most of the tumor cells stained positively for chromogranin a and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and some of the tumor cells were positive for pancreatic polypeptide. The presence of neurosecretory intracytoplasmic granules was proven ultrastructurally. It was diagnosed as a classical carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder. We reviewed the Japanese reported cases and discussed the difference in clinicopathological findings between classical and atypical carcinoid tumors of the gallbladder. Classical carcinoids of the gallbladder have neither a metastatic nor invasive character, and an extremely favorable prognosis compared with atypical carcinoids. The difference in character between classical and atypical carcinoids of the gallbladder is thought to be derived from their histogenetic origin.
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7/141. Mucinous tumor of the gallbladder with a separate nodule of anaplastic carcinoma.

    A case of mucinous tumor of the gallbladder with a separate nodule of anaplastic carcinoma is reported. The patient was an 83-year-old Japanese man who underwent cholecystectomy under the preoperative diagnosis of a mucus-producing gallbladder tumor. A mucinous tumor was found in the neck and distal body of the gallbladder, associated with a separate nodule in the fundus. The latter nodule was initially diagnosed as a benign xanthogranulomatous lesion. However, the immunohistochemical study revealed that the atypical cells in the superficial part of the nodule were positive for cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen, confirming the diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma. Although the occurrence of mural nodules in mucinous cystic tumors of the ovary and pancreas is well reported, to our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of a mucinous tumor with a nodule of anaplastic carcinoma in the gallbladder.
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8/141. Pyloric gland metaplasia with perineural invasion of the gallbladder: A lesion that can be confused with adenocarcinoma.

    BACKGROUND: Metaplastic pyloric glands have been described in a variety of organs including the gallbladder, in which they can extend into the muscular wall and serosa. methods: Clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of four cases of gallbladder florid pyloric gland metaplasia with perineural and intraneural invasion are analyzed. RESULTS: The patients with pyloric gland metaplasia and perineural and intraneural invasion were all females ages 57-72 years. A preoperative diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis was made for all four patients, but a histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was made for two patients and entertained in two others. Macroscopically the gallbladders showed changes usually associated with chronic cholecystitis. No intraluminal masses were observed in any of the gallbladders. The characteristic microscopic features included florid pyloric gland metaplasia, proliferation of medium-sized nerve trunks more prominent in the muscular layer and serosa, and perineural and intraneural invasion by the metaplastic glands lined by cytologically bland cuboidal or columnar mucin-containing cells. At last follow-up all patients were alive and symptom free 1-7 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Pyloric gland metaplasia of the gallbladder should be added to the long and increasing list of benign epithelial proliferations that are associated with perineural and intraneural invasion. This lesion should not be mistaken for adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder, a misinterpretation that may have serious therapeutic implications. The pathogenesis of this phenomenon is unknown.
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9/141. Synchronous carcinoma of the gallbladder in a patient with intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma.

    An 83-year-old woman, diagnosed as having cholelithiasis, was admitted to the Department of Surgery, Nippon Medical School, with right hypochondrial pain. ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a mass in the gallbladder fundus and a hypovascular tumor in the anterior segment of the liver. magnetic resonance imaging showed stenosis of the intrahepatic bile duct and dilatation of its proximal portion. She was diagnosed as having intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma combined with gallbladder carcinoma. At laparotomy, there was evidence of multiple peritoneal metastases and intraoperative histological examination of the gallbladder tumor revealed adenocarcinoma. Accordingly, only cholecystectomy and needle biopsy of the liver tumor was performed. Histological examination of the gallbladder revealed papillary adenocarcinoma invading the muscularis propria with medullary growth or intermediate stroma. There was no microvessel invasion, no perineural invasion and no lymph node involvement. On the other hand, the liver tumor was a cholangiocarcinoma with a well-differentiated tubular pattern. Therefore, this was a rare case of synchronous carcinoma of the gallbladder associated with intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma.
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10/141. Primary carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder: resection of a case metastasizing to the liver and analysis of outcomes.

    gallbladder carcinoid tumor is a rare and aggressive neoplasm, usually lacking specific symptoms, as they typically are unassociated with the carcinoid syndrome, despite frequent hepatic spread. The patient was an 81-year-old man with right upper quadrant pain who underwent radical surgery for carcinoid tumor of the gallbladder with liver metastasis (preoperative diagnosis, carcinoma). We analyzed the outcome of previously reported cases of gallbladder carcinoid. Increasing tumor size and depth of invasion progressively compromised the 2-year survival. These findings underscore the importance of early detection.
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