Cases reported "Gallstones"

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1/112. Laparoscopic choledochoduodenostomy.

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the gold standard for treatment of patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis. Management of common bile duct stones in the era of laparoscopy is an area of controversy. Although perioperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography remains as a widely used procedure, experience is accumulating on the exploration of the common bile duct with the laparoscope. A biliary drainage procedure is indicated in selected patients with choledocholithiasis. Initially described by Reidel in 1892, side-to-side choledochoduodenostomy has become a popular biliary-enteric anastomosis technique in the last century. We describe two patients with recurrent choledocholithiasis and biliary obstruction due to benign biliary strictures. Both patients underwent laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and stone extraction. A side-to-side choledochoduodenostomy is then performed laparoscopically as a drainage procedure. Laparoscopic choledochoduodenostomy resulted in resolution of jaundice and relief of biliary obstruction. Laparoscopic choledochoduodenostomy can be an acceptable alternative to the open choledochoduodenostomy. In addition to a tension-free anastomosis and an adequate-sized stoma, intracorporeal suturing and knot-tying skills are also essential to the success of this procedure.
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keywords = operative
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2/112. Percutaneous papillary balloon dilatation as a therapeutic option for cholecystocholedocholithiasis in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous papillary balloon dilatation (PPBD) as a therapeutic option for cholecystocholedocholithiasis, in combination with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). A total of 15 patients with both bile duct and gallbladder stones were clinically investigated. In 14 patients, PPBD was performed 2 to 7 days prior to LC, while in the remaining patient, PPBD was performed immediately after LC under general anesthesia in one continuous session. The bile duct stones were successfully pushed out into the duodenum in all the patients, seven of whom required two sessions for complete stone clearance, while the other eight needed only one session. Two patients had bile duct stones larger than 12 mm in diameter, necessitating electrohydraulic lithotripsy under cholangioscopy. The insertion of a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tube did not cause intra-abdominal adhesions severe enough to contraindicate the use of LC. The operation times for LC varied from 80 to 184 min, with a mean operation time of 132 min, and the average postoperative and overall hospital stays were 9 and 26 days, respectively. There were no deaths or major complications, apart from transient hyperamylasemia. The findings of this study indicate that PPBD combined with LC is a safe and effective therapeutic option for cholecystocholedocholithiasis.
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keywords = operative
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3/112. Biliary tract duplication accompanied by choledocholithiasis: report of a case.

    Duplication of the biliary tract is extremely rare. In fact, to the best of our knowledge, only four previous reports of pediatric patients with this disease have been documented in the Japanese literature. This anomaly was diagnosed by perioperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in three of these patients, and incidentally during surgery for congenital biliary dilatation in the other one. We report herein a case of biliary tract duplication which was diagnosed by T-tube cholangiography, only in the oblique view, after cholecystectomy and choledochotomy with T-tube drainage. The patient was a 13-year-old girl who was initially diagnosed as having choledocholithiasis based on the results of preoperative and intraoperative cholangiography; however, a postoperative T-tube cholangiography revealed residual stones. At this point, duplication of the biliary tract was diagnosed only in the first oblique view. reoperation was carried out 26 days after the first operation. The biliary tract was dissected completely from the pancreaticobiliary junction to the left and right hepatic ducts in the porta hepatis and found to be duplicated from the level of porta hepatis to the suprapancreatic area. We report our experience of this case, followed by a discussion on the relevant literature.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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4/112. Massive postoperative hemorrhage from hepatic artery erosion.

    A 66-year-old male patient who had undergone repeated operations for peptic ulcer disease involving the right upper abdominal quadrant, developed cholecystitis with calculous obstruction of the common bile duct. The gallbladder was removed. Later, an operation was performed for removal of a residual stone from the common duct. At this time an anomalous arterial structure was noted about the duct. Hemorrhage occurred ten days postoperatively, and the anomalous hepatic artery was found to be eroded. The bleeding was controlled. During the succeeding two weeks there were four episodes of bleeding (involving erosion of the hepatic artery and adjacent tissues), three of which were controlled. The fourth episode ended in the death of the patient from exsanguination secondary to bleeding from stress ulcers in the gastric remnant. At no time did the laboratory data unequivocally indicate an abnormality of blood coagulation. Erosion of the anomalous cystic artery apparently precipitated the fatal chain of events.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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5/112. The anesthetic management of a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    Implications: This case report describes the anesthetic considerations for a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Specific strategies to be applied in the perioperative period to prevent hemolytic episodes and venous thrombosis are also discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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6/112. Implantation metastasis following external biliary drainage in biliary tract cancers--cause for concern!

    Three patients with periampullary cancer developed tumor seedings along the T-tube choledochostomy tract, thus precluding curative resection in two patients and an early recurrence at the choledochostomy exit site in the third patient. External biliary drainage and intraoperative bile spill should be avoided in patients with curable biliary tract neoplasms.
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keywords = operative
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7/112. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    The patient was a 72-year-old man who was receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) with a diagnosis of chronic renal failure. Although his response to dialysis therapy was favorable, right hypochondralgia and fever occurred, and gallstones were detected by abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography. Drip-infusion cholangiography (DIC) revealed neither dilation nor calculus in the common bile duct. The patient was diagnosed as having acute cholecystitis and cholecystolithiasis and, in consideration of his general condition, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was carried out. pneumoperitoneum was performed through a CAPD tube, and a 10 mm-trocar was carefully introduced through a supraumbilical incision so as not to injure the CAPD tube. Since intraoperative cholangiography showed a condition similar to preoperative DIC, only cholecystectomy was undertaken. The postoperative course was uneventful, with neither postoperative hemorrhage nor leakage of dialysate from the wound.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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8/112. Clip migration causes choledocholithiasis after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    The migration of surgical clips after laparoscopic procedures was first reported in 1992, but such instances are extremely rare. We herein demonstrate a case of a migrated metal clip, which had been applied originally to the cystic duct, but thereafter had moved to the common bile duct. This clip caused choledocholithiasis in a patient 1 year after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A 63-year-old man underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During the operation, the inflamed cystic duct was divided accidentally, and three clips were applied immediately. The patient complained of upper abdominal pain from postoperative day 8. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography demonstrated bile leakage from the cystic duct, but showed no clips or choledochal stones. The patient complained of severe upper abdominal and back pain 1 year after the operation. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed a metal clip in the common bile duct and choledochal stones above the clip. The clip and the cholesterol stones were removed using a basket catheter. Three clips applied to the cystic duct should have been removed because of the necrosis in the remaining cystic duct. Thereafter, the clip may have migrated through the stump of the cystic duct into the lower part of the common bile duct. This clip seems to have later caused choledocholithiasis resulting from stagnation of the bile flow. Bile leakage after an operation seems to increase the risk of clip migration. Regardless of the primary lesion, a careful follow-up evaluation is necessary for patients demonstrating complications.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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9/112. An anaphylactic reaction possibly associated with an intraoperative coronary artery spasm during general anesthesia.

    We report a case of anaphylactic reaction occurring during general anesthesia that may have been accompanied by a coronary artery spasm. The present case and a review of the medical literature suggest that coronary artery spasm is evoked by common vasoactive mediators with anaphylactic reactions. Coronary artery spasm should be counted as a symptom of the cardiovascular manifestation of anaphylaxis. Clinicians should be aware of this possible complication when treating an anaphylactic reaction, especially in patients at risk for atherosclerosis. Early recognition of ST segment elevation is essential for diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery spasm.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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10/112. Bilary tract exploration via T-tube tract: improved technique.

    A total of 40 cases referred for postoperative reexploration of the biliary tract via the T-tube trace was reviewed. In selected cases, a modified technique of dilatation of the T-tube tract or bile ducts and endoscopy via the T-tube tract was used. dilatation of the T-tube tract is a relatively simple procedure that was necessary in over one-half of our cases, since the retained stone was larger than the T-tube inserted during surgery. A new T-tube with a larger external limb was developed in order to reduce the necessity for dilatation of the biliary-cutaneous fistulous tract. Fiberoptic endoscopy of the biliary system via the T-tube tract offers another means for removing large or impacted stones and for investigating mucosal defects. This modified technique has reduced the number of patients requiring surgical reexploration.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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