Cases reported "Ganglioglioma"

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1/13. Mixed conventional and desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma: an autopsied case with 6-year follow-up.

    We describe a case of desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) arising in the ventral diencephalon of a 3-1/2-month-old boy. On biopsy, the tumor featured a desmoplastic, S-100 protein and GFAP immunoreactive stromal element, as well as a variable spectrum of ganglion cells. Electron microscopy demonstrated astrocytes, and morphologically fibroblasts, as well as neurons containing 120-nm dense core granules. In addition, tubular structures composed of tightly apposed cells with features of astrocytes and of Schwann-like cells were also noted. Devoid of fibroblasts, the tubular structures were surrounded by a single basal lamina. At autopsy 6 years later, the multinodular, cystic mass had replaced the diencephalon, extended into both temporal lobes as well as the optic nerves, and showed marked leptomeningeal involvement. Microscopically, superficial portions of the tumor consisted of typical DIG, whereas deep, nondesmoplastic portions exhibited pattern variation ranging from pilocytic astrocytoma to ganglioglioma and gangliocytoma. There was also a minor element of small, 'primitive-appearing' neuroepithelial cells. Dysplastic ganglion cells variously reactive for neurofilament protein and synaptophysin were present throughout the tumor. Our study not only confirms DIG as a variant of ganglioglioma, one capable of slow growth, infiltration, and fatal progression but suggests that its differentiating potential includes elements of both the central and peripheral nervous systems. If so, their derivation may be from multipotential cells of the neural plate.
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2/13. Anaplastic ganglioglioma with sarcomatous component: an immunohistochemical study and molecular analysis of p53 tumor suppressor gene.

    The present case report describes a case of ganglioglioma with a distinct sarcomatous component in the left temporal lobe of a 59-year-old Japanese man. Neoplastic neuroglial tissue contained both benign and anaplastic glial components with a MIB-1 labeling index of 0.1% and 12.0%, respectively. Sarcomatous tissue adjacent to the anaplastic glial tissue was dominated by pleomorphic fibroblastic cells with a MIB-1 labeling index of 10.8%. They were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, type IV collagen, and alpha 1 antitrypsin, but not for desmin and CD34. Interestingly, some of the sarcomatous cells were double-positive for smooth muscle actin and GFAP. The p53 protein had accumulated in the anaplastic astrocytes and sarcomatous cells, but direct dna sequencing of PCR products failed to detect any mutation in the p53 gene (from exon 4 to exon 10).
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3/13. Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma--clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of four cases.

    case reports: Four cases of desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) seen in india are described. These patients presented with large, supratentorial, superficially situated cystic tumours that showed glial and ganglionic differentiation; accompanied by a severe desmoplastic reaction. MIB-1 labelling was rare, despite foci of apparently primitive neuroepithelial cells. There was lacking p53 protein expression by tumour cells in all cases. The prognosis was good following either partial or complete tumour resection. DIGs are a distinct form of developmental neuroepithelial tumour, probably arising from neural progenitor cells in subcortical zone along with mature subpial astrocytes. CONCLUSIONS: In view of its favourable prognosis, this tumour has to be diagnosed accurately by immunohistochemical techniques using glial and neuronal markers. The absence of p53 protein expression suggests that DIG probably has different molecular genetic pathways from other supratentorial astrocytomas.
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4/13. Gangliogliomas: A report of five cases.

    Gangliogliomas are rare tumors of the central nervous system. Five gangliogliomas were diagnosed out of 1560 brain tumours surgically resected out in a period of 5 years accounting for 0. 32%. We have tried to discuss in detail the pathological features of these tumours and have mentioned the clinical and radiological features associated with them. All the slides, tissue blocks and pathology reports of the surgical specimens of gangliglioma were reviewed and the clinical and radiological data reviewed. The ages of the patients ranged from 7-65 years with 4 males and 1 female. The tumors were located in the lateral ventricle (a rare site), temporal, parietal and the frontal lobes with duration of seizures varying from 1-9 years. The tumors were diagnosed by the presence of a dual population of neoplastic ganglionic and glial components. The glial components consisted of pilocytic astrocytes (l case), fibrillary astrocytes (2 cases), oligodendrocytes (1 case) and anaplastic astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (1 case). There was one-grade I GG, three-Grade II GGs and one-grade III GG. astrocytes were the commonest glial component of GGs, either pilocytic or fibrillary. Oligodendrocytes as the glial component of GGs was seen in 2 cases one of which was anaplastic and this is a rare finding.
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5/13. Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma: a rare tumor with an unusual presentation.

    Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (world health organization grade I) is a rare neoplasm. Despite their common large size and spectacular radiologic and histologic features, the prognosis after surgical resection is good. We present a new case of this tumor in a 14-month-old boy with a recent history of intracranial hypertension. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large tumor involving the left collateral trigone with dilatation of the lateral ventricles. Surgery revealed two separate solid tumors: one in the left falco-tentorial region and the other in the left rolandic area. Microscopic examination showed a proliferation of neoplastic astrocytes in reticulin-rich desmoplastic stroma associated with scattered ganglion cells. One year after surgery follow-up magnetic resonance imaging did not show tumor progression.
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6/13. A report of a desmoplastic ganglioglioma in a 12-year-old girl with review of the literature.

    Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma is a supratentorial tumor that typically occurs in infants below the age of 24 months. Rare tumors with the same radiological and histological characteristics have been described in older subjects. We report a case of desmoplastic ganglioglioma in a 12-year-old girl with a 13 years follow-up. The patient presented with an inaugural generalized seizure. CT scan demonstrated a large superficial parieto-occipital mass, attached to the dura with solid and cystic components. Surgical resection was macroscopically complete. No adjuvant treatment was given. Thirteen years after surgery, the patient is symptom free. Histological examination revealed a pleomorphic tumor involving the meningeal space and the cortex. Meningeal portion was made of neoplastic astrocytes enmeshed in a dense network of connective tissue. The cortical component showed abnormal neurons, tumoral astrocytes and small foci of poorly differentiated cells with rare mitoses. Our observation and the seven others found in the literature indicate that desmoplastic gangliogliomas can occur in children and even in young adults. Despite some worrisome radiological and histological features, these tumors should not be misdiagnosed as malignant glioma. Like infantile cases, non-infantile desmoplastic gangliogliomas seem to have a favorable prognosis without additional therapy, if a total surgical resection can be performed.
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7/13. Papillary glioneuronal tumor radiologically mimicking a cavernous hemangioma with hemorrhagic onset.

    Papillary glioneuronal tumor is a recently identified low-grade brain neoplasm classified as variant of ganglioglioma. Its salient morphological characteristics are the presence of pseudopapillary structures composed of blood vessels, often hyalinized, lined by uniform small astrocytes and a proliferation of neurocytic cells, eventually admixed with ganglioid and ganglion cells. We present a case of papillary glioneuronal tumor occurring in a 15-year-old female with an unusual hemorrhagic onset. The clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features are discussed and the published literature is reviewed. This article proposes that papillary glioneuronal tumor should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with tumoral related brain hemorrhage.
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8/13. Papillary glioneuronal tumor: a case report and review of the literature.

    Papillary glioneuronal tumor is a recently described central nervous system neoplasm that almost always occurs adjacent to the lateral ventricle. We present a case of this rare entity, representing the 21st case of this lesion, which exhibits a mixed astrocytic and neuronal differentiation. This case was an incidental finding in a young woman who presented secondary to a traumatic injury to the left eye. Histologic evaluation after surgical removal showed a cystic tumor consisting of 2 distinct components: a unique pseudopapillary architecture admixed with foci of solid areas. The pseudopapillae were composed of thick hyalinized vessels enclosed by a single layer of glial fibrillary acid protein-positive astrocytes and variously sized synaptophysin-positive and chromogranin-negative neuronal cells in the interpapillary regions. Abundant Rosenthal fibers, foci of calcification, areas of hemosiderin deposition, gliosis, areas of vascular proliferation associated with piloid gliosis, and chronic inflammatory infiltrate were identified. The combination of cytologic benignity, lack of necrosis, and low proliferative index as evidenced by immunohistochemistry using antibody to Ki-67 confirmed the low malignant potential of this tumor. knowledge and precise classification of this entity are important to avoid unnecessary use of chemo- and/or radiotherapy for treatment.
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9/13. Glioneurocytoma: tumor with glial and neuronal differentiation.

    We report two cases of low-grade glioma in which multiple cellular components, including cells with dense-core granules consistent with "neurocytes," were identified on electron microscopic studies. The first patient was an apparently normal boy until the onset of seizures at age 10 months. Initially, the seizures improved with phenobarbital treatment, but good seizure control was never achieved. Computed tomographic scan at age 23 months showed a calcified, nonenhancing left parietal mass. This tumor was composed of sheets of cells with clear cytoplasm and round to oval nuclei. Mucinous intercellular material stained positively with periodic acid-Schiff, mucicarmine, and alcian blue stains. Foci of calcification were evident. The second patient was a 13-year-old boy with a left parasagittal parieto-occipital mass who presented with a 4-month history of seizures and declining school performance. The tumor was composed of sheets of astrocytes with dark, hyperchromatic, pleomorphic nuclei in a fibrillary and microcystic background. The tumor contained the pleomorphism seen in the adult variant of pilocytic astrocytoma, as well as the microcystic component seen in the juvenile variety. Ultrastructurally in both cases, there were occasional tumor cells having round to oval nuclei with moderate amounts of cytoplasm containing 150- to 250-nm-diameter dense-core granules. These cells were admixed with the majority of tumor cells, which in case 1 had the ultrastructural features of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and in case 2 had features of protoplasmic or pilocytic astrocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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10/13. The immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure of ganglioglioma with chromosomal alterations: a case report.

    ganglioglioma, together with its counterparts-ganglioneuroma and gangliocytoma are relatively uncommon neoplasms of the brain composed of neoplastic neurons (ganglion and ganglioid cells) and glial cells. We report here a case of ganglioglioma studied by electron microscopy. The case was further characterized by peculiar chromosomal alterations, 46,XX[6]/43,XX[1], der(1)t(1;5)(q21;q12), der(8;13)(q10;q10),-9,i(10)(q10). Routine light microscopy revealed mixed neuro-glial tumor composed of pilocytic astrocytes with abundant Rosenthal fibers and relatively numerous ganglion cells. The latter were immunoreactive with antibodies (Abs) against synaptophysin and neurofilament protein (NFP). Anti-NFP Abs also immunostained numerous distorted axons embedded in the tumor mass. Some of these showed bullous swellings and thus were analogous to dystrophic neurites or spheroids. Ganglion cells were characterized by abundant intracytoplasmic dense-core vesicles, absence of intermediate filaments and numerous microtubules. Occasionally a close apposition of ganglion cells and Rosenthal fibers were seen. Dense-cored vesicles were pleomorphic and ranged in diameter from small synaptic vesicles to large lysosome-like neurosecretory granules. The former occasionally formed characteristic dumbbell shapes. Neoplastic astrocytes were identical to those of other glial tumors of astrocytic lineage; numerous Rosenthal fibers were frequently seen.
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