Cases reported "Gangliosidosis, Gm1"

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1/34. Type 1 GM1 gangliosidosis with basal ganglia calcification: a case report.

    This report concerns a 10-month-old boy, admitted to the veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung with generalized tonic convulsion and aspiration pneumonia. He was found to have had developmental regression, progressive hypotonia and hepatosplenomegaly since four months of age. physical examination revealed a large head circumference (97th percentile), frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, hepatosplenomegaly, broad hands and short fingers. neurologic examination showed poor control of eye movement, profound hypotonia, muscle weakness, brisk deep tendon reflexes and Babinski's sign. Hypoplasia of the vertebral bodies with anterior beaking, wedge-shaped metacarpals, spatulated ribs and a J-shaped sella turcica were displayed on bone radiographs. Cranial computerized tomography scans showed diffuse brain atrophy, dilated ventricles and calcification of the bilateral basal ganglia. Vacuolated lymphocytes were noted in a peripheral blood smear. Type 1 GM1 gangliosidosis was diagnosed based on a deficiency of beta-galactosidase activity. To our knowledge, basal ganglia calcification in type 1 GM1 gangliosidosis has never been reported in the literature. We suggest that type 1 GM1 gangliosidosis be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with an early onset of neurologic decline, organomegaly and basal ganglia calcification. ( info)

2/34. Infantile G(M1) gangliosidosis: complete morphology and histochemistry of two autopsy cases, with particular reference to delayed central nervous system myelination.

    Inborn metabolic errors causing lysosomal storage, such as beta-galactosidase deficiency (G(M1) gangliosidosis [G(M1)]), have well-recognized effects on cellular function and morphology. In some classically "neuronal" storage diseases, including G(M1), neuroradiologic observations of infants have suggested a delay in myelination on the basis of persistently "immature" signal intensities monitored over time. We sought to evaluate in a semiquantitative fashion the pattern and degree of myelination in two infantile G(M1) patients, one boy and one girl, autopsied at 15 months of age. We assigned myelination degrees for defined sites on an ordinal scale of 0 to 4, and compared them to published population-based values for autopsied infants. In both patients, earlier-myelinating structures were comparable in development to that expected for postconceptional age, whereas later-myelinating structures were delayed. These data correlate well with the neuroradiologic diagnosis of myelination delay in these infants and suggest that the metabolic defect has a primary influence on myelin development, in addition to effects related to neuronal storage. Furthermore, our analysis by light and electron microscopy and lectin histochemistry of both CNS and systemic tissues, several of which had not been described, add to the understanding of the stored material in different cell types. ( info)

3/34. Cerebral fluorine-18 labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), MRI, and clinical observations in a patient with infantile G(M1) gangliosidosis.

    The clinical, biochemical, pathological and neuroradiological findings of a 2-year-old Saudi boy with infantile G(M1) gangliosidosis are reported. The patient had a progressive neurologic deterioration, manifesting with developmental regression, sensorimotor and psychointellectual dysfunction and generalized spasticity that started at 4 months of age. Cherry-red macula, facial dysmorphia, hepatomegaly, exaggerated startle response to sounds, skeletal dysplasia, and vacuolated foamy lymphocytes that contain finely fibrillar material in addition to lamellar membranes and electron-dense rounded bodies were seen. MRI of the brain demonstrated mild diffuse brain atrophy and features of delayed dysmyelination and demyelination. brain FDG PET scan revealed a mild decrease in the basal ganglia uptake, and moderate to severe decrease in thalamic and visual cortex uptake, and an area of increased glucose uptake in the left frontal lobe, probably representing an active seizure focus. The functional changes indicated by FDG PET scan and the structural abnormalities shown on MRI were found to be complementary in the imaging evaluation of infantile G(M1) gangliosidosis. ( info)

4/34. beta-galactosidase gene mutations affecting the lysosomal enzyme and the elastin-binding protein in GM1-gangliosidosis patients with cardiac involvement.

    GM1-gangliosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of acid beta-galactosidase (GLB1). We report five new beta-galactosidase gene mutations in nine Italian patients and one fetus, segregating in seven unrelated families. Six of the eight patients with the infantile, severe form of the disease presented cardiac involvement, a feature rarely associated with GM1-gangliosidosis. Molecular analysis of the patients' RNA and dna identified two new rna splicing defects, three new and three previously described amino acid substitutions. Interestingly, all patients with cardiac involvement were homozygous for one of these mutations: R59H, Y591C, Y591N, or IVS14-2A>G. In contrast, all other patients were compound heterozygous for one of the following mutations: R201H, R482H, G579D, IVS8 2T>C. Although we could not directly correlate the presence of cardiac abnormalities with specific genetic lesions, the mutations identified in patients with cardiomyopathy fell in the GLB1 cDNA region common to the lysosomal enzyme and the Hbeta-Gal-related protein, also known as the elastin binding protein (EBP). Consequently, both molecules are affected by the mutations, and they may contribute differently to the occurrence of specific clinical manifestations. ( info)

5/34. Generalised dystonia with an abnormal magnetic resonance imaging signal in the basal ganglia: a case of adult-onset GM1 gangliosidosis.

    We describe a 46-year-old woman with adult-onset generalised dystonia and a severe speech disorder with an abnormal magnetic resonance imaging signal in the basal ganglia. A storage disease study demonstrated the presence of a GM1 gangliosidosis. This rare condition should be investigated in cases of generalised dystonia, especially in those cases with other features suggesting symptomatic dystonia. ( info)

6/34. Modulating action of the new polymorphism L436F detected in the GLB1 gene of a type-II GM1 gangliosidosis patient.

    We report the modulating action of the L436F new polymorphism identified in the GLB1 gene of a patient affected by GM1 gangliosidosis with onset at 17 months and rapidly progressive psychomotor deterioration. Sequencing analysis and familial restriction studies revealed that the maternal allele of this patient carried the L436F polymorphism in cis with the known R201C mutation. The new mutation R68W was identified in his paternal allele. Since the GLB1 activity of the patient's leukocytes was very low and compatible with both the type-I and the type-II form of the disease, the potential impact of each mutation was investigated by expression studies in COS1 cells, and Western blots. Expression study of the R68W mutated allele resulted in no GLB1 activity. transfection with a vector carrying the R201C mutation gave rise to a residual GLB1 activity, which, interestingly, was severely reduced in transfection with the L436F/R201C allele. These expression studies, together with co-transfection experiments, suggest that the R201C/L436F GLB1 "complex allele" leads to this patient's clinical and biochemical findings. The type-II phenotype of the disease is subdivided into late infantile and juvenile forms. The clinical and molecular characterization of this patient as late-infantile GM1 gangliosidosis is in keeping with a clear-cut division between the two sub forms of the type-II phenotype. The modulating role of the L436F polymorphism should be stressed as a cause of this patient's condition. This model suggests that the combination of missense mutations or polymorphisms should be evaluated when diagnosing inherited genetic disorders. ( info)

7/34. Type 3 GM1 gangliosidosis: characteristic MRI findings correlated with dystonia.

    We describe three brothers with type 3 GM1 gangliosidosis presenting as dystonia. The ages of the patients when examined were 28, 31, and 33. They had developed dysarthria with facial grimacing since early childhood. The common neurological sign was generalized dystonia. Both dystonic postures and dystonic movements resulting from varying degrees of fixed rigidity of each muscle involved did not disappear when the patients were lying or sitting relaxed. There was no correlation between the severity of dystonia and the residual activities of acid beta-galactosidase. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilaterally symmetric high intensity lesions only in the putamen on T2-weighted and proton density images. Selective putaminal changes on MRI may be the lesions most responsible for symptomatic dystonia in this disorder. ( info)

8/34. Multifocal motor neuropathy presenting as chronic progressive proximal leg weakness.

    We report on a 47-year-old man with a 12-year history of progressive and ultimately severe proximal weakness of his right lower limb. Motor conduction block at the unaffected tibial nerve and positive IgM antibodies against GM1 gangliosides lead us to suggest a diagnosis of oligosymptomatic multifocal motor neuropathy. He rapidly responded to intravenous immunoglobulins, with complete remission lasting 4 weeks, and had a repeated treatment response to intravenous immunoglobulins during subsequent exacerbations. The proximal involvement may represent another unusual clinical manifestation of multifocal motor neuropathy. ( info)

9/34. Clinical features of adult GM1 gangliosidosis: report of three Indian patients and review of 40 cases.

    Deficiency of enzyme acid beta-galactosidase causes GM1 gangliosidosis. patients with adult GM1 gangliosidosis typically present with generalized dystonia. We describe clinical, bone marrow, and radiological features of adult GM1 gangliosidosis to help improve its recognition. We report 3 Indian patients and review of reports between 1981 and October 2002. The disease frequently is reported in the Japanese literature (75%). patients are normal at birth and have normal early motor and mental development. Onset is within the first decade with abnormal gait, or worsening of speech is an initial symptom. dystonia occurs in 97% of patients. Facial dystonia described as "facial grimacing" observed in approximately 90% could be an important clinical clue. dysarthria/anarthria (97%) is frequent, and eye movements are normal. bone marrow examination may show Gaucher-like foam cells (39%). magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) frequently (90.9%) shows bilateral symmetrical putamenal hyperintensities on T2-weighted and proton density images. diagnosis is confirmed by demonstrating deficiency of beta-galactosidase. adult (Type 3) GM1 Gangliosidosis commonly presents with generalized dystonia with prominent facial dystonia, severe speech disturbances, and normal eye movements. Bone marrow frequently shows Gaucher-like foam cells. MRI shows typical lesions in the putamen. Deficiency of beta-galactosidase in fibroblasts confirms the diagnosis. ( info)

10/34. magnetic resonance imaging findings and novel mutations in GM1 gangliosidosis.

    Two unrelated children and their siblings of Arab origin were diagnosed as having GM1 gangliosidosis on the basis of clinical features and markedly low levels of beta-galactosidase. The T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of the brain revealed certain characteristic features, including delayed myelination and abnormal appearance of the subcortical white matter, internal capsule, and basal ganglia. Their mutation analysis showed two novel mutations, which have not been described in an Arabic population. ( info)
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