Cases reported "Gangrene"

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1/91. Developing venous gangrene in deep vein thrombosis: intraarterial low-dose burst therapy with urokinase--case reports.

    Two patients with developing venous gangrene of the lower extremity and contraindications to systemic thrombolytic therapy are presented. Low-dose intraarterial burst therapy with urokinase provided rapid amelioration of symptoms and avoided amputation without any serious bleeding complications in both patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis, deep vein, vein thrombosis, deep, vein
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2/91. A fatal case of craniofacial necrotizing fasciitis.

    A case of fatal craniofacial necrotizing fasciitis is described in a 72-year-old diabetic woman and management is discussed. Progressive infection of the eyelids occurred with involvement of the right side of the face. Computed tomography revealed soft tissue swelling. Antibiotic treatment was started and debridement performed; histopathology showed acute inflammation and thrombosis of the epidermis and dermis. Despite treatment, scepticemia occurred, resulting in death less than 48 h after presentation. At this time extensive necrosis had developed in the superficial fascia with undermining and gangrene of surrounding tissues. Streptococcus and Staphylococcus were the pathogens involved. Poor prognosis in similar patients has been associated with extensive infection, involvement of the lower face and neck, delayed treatment, advanced age, diabetes and vascular disease.
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ranking = 0.1764979651144
keywords = thrombosis
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3/91. Hypothenar hammer syndrome: management of distal embolization by intra-arterial fibrinolytics.

    We report a case of hypothenar hammer syndrome. The ulnar artery aneurysm was resected and a complete thrombectomy of the superficial palmar arch, the common digital and the proximal part of the collateral digital arteries was carried out. The arterial defect of the ulnar artery was repaired by a vein graft. Post-operatively, no clinical improvement was observed on the vascularisation of the second and third fingers. The arteriogram confirmed the presence of arterial obstruction on the distal part of the digital collateral arteries of this two fingers. The finger pulp started to show areas of skin gangrene and in view of the risk of finger necrosis, we decided to use fibrinolytics. This embolic events was dissolved by continuous fibrinolytic and anticoagulant intra-arterial infusion. The treatment was maintained for ten days restoring a normal digital vascularisation.
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ranking = 0.00051421979669093
keywords = vein
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4/91. Peripheral gangrene complicating idiopathic and recessive hemolytic uremic syndromes.

    Three patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) developed peripheral gangrene. Bilateral carotid artery thromboses occurred in one of these patients after recovery from HUS. One patient had a long history of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In the second patient, a flu-like illness preceded the onset of HUS. The third was one of two sisters, with the HUS appearing more than 1 year apart. None had evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or infection with streptococcus pneumoniae. The patient with rheumatoid arthritis had renal cortical necrosis but recovered moderate renal function after treatment with dialysis and plasmapheresis for 6 months. The child with a genetic form of HUS died of renal failure and had massive cortical necrosis and vascular thrombosis at autopsy. This is the first report of peripheral gangrene in children with idiopathic HUS and autosomal recessive HUS.
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ranking = 0.1764979651144
keywords = thrombosis
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5/91. Non-thermic skin affections.

    The Centre for burns can help by its means (material, technical and personal) in the treatment of burns with extensive and deep losses of the skin cover and other tissue structures and in some affections with a different etiology (non-thermic affections). Indicated for admission are, in particular, extensive exfoliative affections--Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (SJS), Lyell's syndrome--toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), deep skin and tissue affections associated with fulminant purpura (PF), possibly other affections (epidermolysis bullosa, posttraumatic avulsions etc.). The similarity with burn injuries with loss of the skin cover grade II is typical, in particular in exfoliative affections with a need for adequate fluid replacement in the acute stage and aseptic surgical treatment of the affected area from the onset of the disease. In conditions leading to full thickness skin loss, in addition to general treatment rapid plastic surgical interventions dominate.
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ranking = 0.0010997491257116
keywords = deep
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6/91. Venous gangrene of lower extremities and staphylococcus aureus sepsis.

    This is a study of the venous gangrene of lower extremities and staphylococcus aureus sepsis. We report on a premature infant who developed phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) in both lower extremities in association with S. aureus sepsis, resulting in gangrene of the right foot. Non-pitting edema and cyanosis of the digits of the right lower extremity were noted 48 hours after hypotension and severe shock due to S. aureus sepsis. Intravenous antibiotics, isotonic fluids, and heparin were administered. Twenty-four hours later, edema and ischemic changes of the first and fifth left toes were also noted. Doppler flow study showed flow signals in both right and left popliteal arteries. However, there were no Doppler signals in neither right nor left popliteal vein. Emergency fasciotomies were performed on both lower limbs. The progression of the gangrene was limited to the right foot. There was complete resolution of PCD in both lower extremities. To the best of our knowledge, the association of S. aureus sepsis with PCD and venous gangrene in an infant has not been reported previously. This case illustrates the need for early recognition of PCD and aggressive intervention.
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ranking = 0.00051421979669093
keywords = vein
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7/91. Upper extremity venous gangrene following coronary artery bypass. A case report and review of the literature.

    Acute symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are estimated to account for only 2-4% of all deep vein thrombosis. Upper extremity DVT leading to phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) occurs in an estimated 2-5% of these cases. Progression of PCD to venous gangrene is extremely rare with only 16 previously reported cases in the literature. Only 7 of the cited cases document significant tissue loss. This report describes a 61-year-old male who developed upper extremity DVT complicated by PCD which led to venous gangrene and limb loss.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis, deep vein, vein thrombosis, deep, vein
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8/91. Venous limb gangrene during warfarin treatment of cancer-associated deep venous thrombosis.

    BACKGROUND: The cause of cancer-associated venous limb gangrene is unknown but could paradoxically be due to warfarin. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pathogenesis of venous gangrene in a patient with cancer. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: University hospital in ontario, canada. PATIENT: 66-year-old woman with metastatic lung cancer and deep venous thrombosis. MEASUREMENTS: Levels of vitamin k-dependent factors, additional coagulation factors, and thrombin-antithrombin complexes (marker of thrombin generation). RESULTS: During warfarin use, venous limb gangrene developed when the international normalized ratio (INR) reached 6.0 (therapeutic range, 2.0 to 3.0); at this time, the level of protein c (a vitamin k-dependent natural anticoagulant) was severely reduced, but thrombin-antithrombin complexes remained markedly elevated. The supratherapeutic INR was explained by the greatly reduced levels of factor vii, which correlated closely with protein c levels; therefore, the high INR was a surrogate marker for severely reduced protein c activity. CONCLUSION: warfarin may contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer-associated venous limb gangrene by leading to severe depletion of protein c while at the same time failing to reduce thrombin generation.
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ranking = 0.99469459362443
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, deep
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9/91. False aneurysm of the peroneal artery: an unusual complication of femoro-peroneal bypass grafting.

    Non-traumatic false aneurysm formation involving the native crural vessels is rare. We present the case of a false aneurysm of the native peroneal artery, which complicated femoro-peroneal bypass grafting. It seemed most likely to be of an infective aetiology, arising as a consequence of contiguous methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus wound infection. This was previously unreported in the literature. Successful management was achieved by primary suture, local wound debridement, excision of the distal graft and replacement with an interposition vein graft through uninfected tissue planes.
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ranking = 0.00051421979669093
keywords = vein
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10/91. peroneal nerve palsy: a complication of umbilical artery catheterization in the full-term newborn of a mother with diabetes.

    Umbilical artery catheters are an essential aid in the treatment of newborn infants who have cardiopulmonary disease. However, it is well-known that umbilical artery catheterization is associated with complications. The most frequent visible problem in an umbilical line is blanching or cyanosis of part or all of a distal extremity or the buttock area resulting from either vasospasm or a thrombotic or embolic incidence. Ischemic necrosis of the gluteal region is a rare complication of umbilical artery catheterization. We report the case of a full-term infant of an insulin-dependent diabetic mother with poor blood glucose control who developed a left peroneal nerve palsy after ischemic necrosis of the gluteal region after umbilical artery catheterization. The infant was born weighing 5050 g. The mother of the infant had preexisting diabetes mellitus that was treated with insulin from the age of 14 years. The metabolic control of the mother had been unstable both before and during the pregnancy. The neonate developed respiratory distress syndrome soon after birth and was immediately transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit. Mechanical ventilation via endotracheal tube was quickly considered necessary after rapid pulmonary deterioration. Her blood glucose levels were 13 mg/dL. A 3.5-gauge umbilical catheter was inserted into the left umbilical artery for blood sampling without difficulty when the infant required 100% oxygen to maintain satisfactory arterial oxygen pressure. Femoral pulses and circulation in the lower limbs were normal immediately before and after catheterization. A radiograph, which was taken immediately, showed the tip of the catheter to be at a level between the fourth and fifth sacral vertebrae. The catheter was removed immediately. Circulation and femoral pulses were normal and no blanching of the skin was observed. Another catheter was repositioned and the tip was confirmed radiologically to be in the thoracic aorta between the sixth and seventh thoracic vertebrae. The catheter was continuously flushed with heparinized solution. Three days after umbilical arterial catheterization, bruising was observed over the left gluteal region. The catheter was immediately removed despite its correct position. Over the next few days, the bruised skin and underlying tissues became necrotic. The area affected was 3 x 4 cm in diameter, with central necrosis surrounded by a rim of dark, red skin, which, in turn, was sharply demarcated from normal skin by a narrow, pale zone. Surgical excision of the gluteal necrosis was performed, but a deep ulcer 3 cm in diameter was left. The gluteal ulcer required 1 month to heal completely with extensive scar tissue formation. Throughout this period, the infant showed active movements in all of her limbs. At 4 weeks of age deterioration of all movement below the left knee with a dropping foot was observed. Severe peroneal nerve palsy was confirmed through nerve conduction studies, and there was electromyographic evidence of degeneration of the muscles supplied by the peroneal branch of the sciatic nerve. A Doppler study, which was also conducted, revealed no vascular damage. Treatment with physiotherapy and night-splinting of the left ankle was instituted. Repeated examination and nerve conduction tests at 3 months showed slow improvement with the left peroneal nerve remaining nonexcitable. At the time of this writing, the infant is 6 months old, and muscular strength below the left knee is still weak and atrophic changes in the form of muscle-wasting are already present. The rest of her motor development is normal. In our case, gangrene of the buttocks and sciatic nerve palsy followed displacement of the tip of the catheter into the inferior gluteal artery, a main branch of the internal iliac artery supplying the gluteus maximus, the overlying skin, and the sciatic nerve. The gangrenous changes were probably caused by vascular occlusion resulting from catheter-induced vasospasm of the inferior gluteal artery. sciatic nerve palsy associated with umbilical artery catheterization has been postulated to be caused by vascular occlusion of the inferior gluteal artery. Infants of diabetic mothers may exhibit changes in coagulation factors and be at increased risk of thrombotic complications in utero and postnatally. In addition, maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased incidence of congenital abnormalities, the incidence of which is 3 to 5 times higher than that among nondiabetic mothers. Although no particular or specific abnormalities have been associated with maternal disabilities, abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, including the development of umbilical vessels, frequently occur. This complication of umbilical artery catheterization has not been widely reported. We describe the first case that refers to gluteal gangrene and peroneal nerve palsy after umbilical artery catheterization of a newborn infant of a diabetic mother with poor blood glucose control. It should be noted that there were no contributing factors except that of the displacement of the catheter into the inferior gluteal artery. We speculate that the displacement of the tip of the catheter, with no difficulty in the present case, was associated with the maldevelopment of normal branching patterns of arteries after exposure of the fetus to hyperglycemia. In conclusion, umbilical artery catheterization is possibly associated with vascular occlusion, particularly in infants of diabetic mothers. Frequent inspection after the procedure has been performed is of the utmost importance especially in these neonates who often suffer from cardiopulmonary disease and require catheterization of their umbilical artery.
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ranking = 0.00054987456285578
keywords = deep
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