Cases reported "Gas Poisoning"

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1/2. Chronic bronchiolitis in a 5-yr-old child after exposure to sulphur mustard gas.

    Exposure to sulphur mustard (SM) gas may have extensive immediate effects on the respiratory system. However, long-term effects are far less known. This case report describes a Kurdish male child who was exposed to SM gas during a chemical attack in iraq at 5 yrs of age. In the acute phase, the child developed severe respiratory symptoms with a chemical pneumonia. Extensive burning of the skin occurred. In the course of 10 yrs, lung function deteriorated progressively to a forced expiratory volume in one second of 30% of predicted value. Severe air-trapping occurred. The lung function abnormalities were not reversed by treatment with corticosteroids or bronchodilators. Infectious exacerbations of the child's lung disease occurred. High resolution computed tomography scan showed multiple bronchiectasis. The histological picture of an open lung biopsy was best described as a "chronic bronchiolitis".
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keywords = mustard
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2/2. Clinical and morphological findings on mustard gas [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide] poisoning.

    In 1984 and 1985, a total of eleven Iranian patients were transferred to hospitals in Munich, germany, after a reported gas attack in the iran-iraq war. The initial symptoms and pretreatment in Teheran, iran, as well as the admittance examination data, the clinical courses of the patients, and the clinical laboratory data in germany, are reported. The main injuries were to the skin, the eyes, and the respiratory tract. One patient stopped breathing suddenly on the third day of treatment (eight days after the exposure). A large piece of mucous membrane blocking a bronchus was removed during an immediate bronchoscopy, but attempts at resuscitation failed. The most important autopsy findings in this case were severe pseudomembranous inflammation of the trachea and the bronchial tubes. The histological findings are reported. Chemical proof of the poison (mustard gas) was established. A review of the history of chemical warfare, the physical and chemical properties of mustard gas, and a literature survey of clinical findings (including, especially, experiences from World Wars I and II) contribute to the understanding of the actual cases.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = mustard
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