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1/20. Advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    endoscopy has a rapidly expanding role in diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal disease. ( info)

2/20. Watermelon stomach--an unusual cause of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a uremic patient receiving estrogen-progesterone therapy: case report.

    A 50-year-old woman who had been on maintenance hemodialysis for 5 years developed severe anemia resistant to treatment with iron supplements and erythropoietin 4 months prior to hospital admission. Her stool occult blood test was positive, and an initial panendoscopy revealed evidence of possible antral gastritis. However, repeated administration of sucralfate, H2 blockers and a proton pump inhibitor was not effective in preventing further gastrointestinal tract blood loss and subsequent refractory anemia. She required multiple blood transfusions and hospital admissions during this period. There was no obvious coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia. After her third admission, a second panendoscopy demonstrated the typical picture of watermelon stomach. A trial of hormone therapy with estrogen and progesterone increased the hemoglobin level within a month without further evidence of active gastrointestinal bleeding. From our experience with this case, we found that the diagnosis of antral vascular ectasia (watermelon stomach) with bleeding requires a high degree of clinical alertness and careful endoscopic examination. Estrogen and progesterone therapy may provide a good option for treating the disease in uremic patients without an obvious complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the use of maintenance hormone therapy in a female uremic patient to successfully treat watermelon gastric bleeding. ( info)

3/20. Disappearance of gastric antral vascular ectasia after percutaneous transhepatic obliteration.

    We report on a patient with severe iron deficiency anemia due to gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), complicating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and esophageal varices. Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGDS) 6 months after transarterial embolization (TAE) for the HCC and percutaneous transhepatic obliteration (PTO) for esophageal varices, showed the absence of GAVE. As GAVE did not recur in spite of the recurrence of the tumor thrombus later, lowered antral congestion by PTO might be the main cause of disappearance of GAVE. This case suggests that PTO may be an effective treatment against GAVE with portal hypertension with uncontrollable bleeding. ( info)

4/20. Watermelon stomach: a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Watermelon stomach is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a middle-aged woman who had been having recurrent bleeding from watermelon stomach. She was treated surgically by gastrectomy and Billroth II anastomosis. ( info)

5/20. Watermelon-stomach as a cause of chronic iron deficiency anemia in a patient with systemic sclerosis.

    Watermelon-stomach is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. There has been an increasing number of reports on the association of this lesion with diseases of the scleroderma group, causing chronic, sometimes severe gastrointestinal blood loss. The present report presents the case of a 75-year-old female with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis and watermelon-stomach, which was the cause of her long-standing sideropenic anemia. ( info)

6/20. The efficacy of octreotide therapy in chronic bleeding due to vascular abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract.

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of angiodysplasia and watermelon stomach, vascular abnormalities implicated in gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin, is a major clinical problem. AIM: To determine the efficacy of octreotide in patients with long-standing gastrointestinal bleeding due to acquired angiodysplasia and watermelon stomach, resistant to previous treatments and not suitable for surgery because of old age and/or concomitant disorders. patients AND methods: We treated 17 patients (seven had isolated angiodysplasia, seven had multiple upper and lower gastrointestinal angiodysplasia, and three had watermelon stomach) with octreotide (0. 1 mg subcutaneous t.d.s. for 6 months). Six of the patients had liver cirrhosis, one had Glanzmann-type platelet derangement, two had cardiovascular diseases and one had chronic uraemia. RESULTS: octreotide treatment stopped bleeding in 10 patients. A transient improvement was observed in four, who needed subsequent cyclical retreatment to correct low haemoglobin levels. No effect was observed in three, probably due to the severity of the concomitant disorders. CONCLUSIONS: octreotide is a safe drug that may be useful to control the recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding due to acquired angiodysplasia and watermelon stomach, especially in patients who are not candidates for surgery due to old age and/or concomitant disorders. ( info)

7/20. Histological estimation of the efficacy of endoscopic laser coagulation therapy for diffuse antral vascular ectasia.

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman with successful control of repeated episodes of bleeding from diffuse antral vascular ectasia (DAVE) by laser coagulation therapy. In addition to DAVE, the patient also suffered from severe iron deficiency anaemia (due to recurrent bleeding), liver cirrhosis, and huge tumours of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). She was referred from another hospital after failure to stop her bleeding episodes. Endoscopic examination revealed diffuse speckled telangiectasia over most of the stomach (from antrum to the upper portion of the body) and large numbers of blood clots. The patient had received repeated blood transfusions, haemostatic drugs, and H2 receptor antagonists at the other hospital, without improvement of the repeated bleeding. She underwent three sessions of endoscopic laser coagulation therapy for the lesions at our hospital after the final diagnosis of DAVE had been made based on the characteristic histological findings of biopsied specimens. This treatment improved her general condition and stopped the bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract even without fasting. Unfortunately, however, her liver function gradually worsened due to HCC and previous massive bleeding, and she finally died of liver failure three months after the last laser session. Autopsied specimens obtained from the patient's stomach revealed that macroscopic diffuse speckled telangiectasia and microscopic typical vasodilatation in mucosal and submucosal layers of gastric tissue had disappeared in the treated areas but not all portions of the DAVE lesion. These histological findings for the treated areas, in addition to the clinical improvement of bleeding, suggest that endoscopic laser coagulation therapy may be useful and one of the first choices in treatment for DAVE. ( info)

8/20. Watermelon stomach following and preceding systemic sclerosis.

    OBJECTIVES: To report two patients with watermelon stomach associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and review the literature on that subject. methods: We describe the clinical presentation, course and outcome of our two patients and reviewed the medical literature registered in the medline pubmed database from 1966 to 1999 by using the key words watermelon stomach, gastric antral vascular ectasia, systemic sclerosis, scleroderma. RESULTS: The two patients presented with microcytic hypochromic anemia. Esophagogastroscopy showed multiple linear vascular malformations in the antrum compatible with watermelon stomach. They responded to Nd-Yag laser therapy with resolution of the lesions and improvement of the anemia. Patient 1 had a history of diffuse SSc while patient 2 developed limited SSc 2 years after the diagnosis of watermelon stomach. A literature review disclosed 16 documented case reports of watermelon stomach associated with SSc, 14 of whom were women. In most cases, watermelon stomach occurred in patients with established SSc but in some it antedated it by several years. In many cases, other autoimmune syndromes such as hypothyroidism, primary biliary cirrhosis, and sjogren's syndrome were present. The presenting symptom was iron deficiency anemia, which in 11 cases was severe enough to require blood transfusions. Nine patients were successfully treated with several transendoscopic treatments, four required surgical intervention, and in three treatment was not specified. CONCLUSION: Although watermelon stomach is a rare syndrome, it is recognized as a cause of persistent bleeding in patients with SSc. awareness of this condition may increase its recognition and treatment. ( info)

9/20. Immunohistochemical assessment of an asymptomatic glucagonoma in a patient with hypergastrinemia and marked antral angiodysplasia.

    A 58-year-old patient had been treated for recurrent gastritis. Numerous gastroscopies indicated hemorrhagic gastritis combined with increasingly severe anemia. The patient was admitted with a hemoglobin of 4.4 g/dL. gastroscopy showed marked antral angiodysplasia. serum samples for gastrin were taken and found to be elevated (170-250 U/mL). The search for a gastrin-producing tumor with abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, octreotide scan, and secretin test was negative, but angiography detected a pancreas tumor with a 2-cm diameter. Partial pancreatectomy and partial gastrectomy were performed. Immunohistochemical examination of the tumor did not show a gastrinoma but did show glucagon-reactive tissue. Further tumors or elevated plasma hormone levels were not detected, and a multiple endocrine neoplasia type I syndrome could be excluded. We thus found antral angiodysplasia with hypergastrinemia leading to detection of a glucagonoma diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. After more than 4 years of follow-up, the patient is without any symptoms or signs of relapse or secondary hormone syndrome. ( info)

10/20. gastric antral vascular ectasia in systemic sclerosis: complete resolution with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide.

    A case of severe, transfusion dependent anaemia in a 72 year old woman, which on endoscopy was found to be due to gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), is reported. Repeated endoscopic sclerotherapy was ineffective. She subsequently developed Raynaud's phenomenon and on further investigation was found to have classical systemic sclerosis with lung involvement. Treatment with pulses of intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide resulted in significant improvement in her pulmonary function tests and skin score. Coincidentally, her haemoglobin stabilised and further endoscopic examinations were normal. This is the first report of cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone leading to complete and sustained resolution of GAVE in association with systemic sclerosis. ( info)
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