Cases reported "Gastroesophageal Reflux"

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1/83. Gastrojejunal interposition for esophageal replacement.

    The main considerations in replacing the esophagus are to avoid postoperative necrosis of all or part of the graft, leakage or stenosis of the anastomoses, and complications related to acid-peptic or alkaline reflux. A 5-year-old boy, after two unsuccessful thoracic operations for atresia and then stenosis of the esophagus, underwent resection of the esophagus because of duodeno-gastroesophageal reflux. The continuity of the alimentary tract was restored by gastrojejunal interposition. We recommend this method of reconstruction when the esophago-gastrostoma is created in the chest, and the possibility of alkaline reflux must be considered.
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ranking = 1
keywords = acid
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2/83. Importance of duodeno-gastro-esophageal reflux in the medical outpatient practice.

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of acid and duodeno-gastro-esophageal reflux (DGER), also termed bile reflux, in esophageal mucosal injury is controversial. Several recent developments, especially availability of the recent bilirubin monitoring device (Bilitec), have resulted in clarifications in this area. In order to better understand the role of acid and DGER in esophageal mucosal injury, we summarized the recent publications in this area. METHODOLOGY: review of published medical literature (medline) on the clinical consequence of esophageal exposure to gastric acid or DGER. RESULTS: Recent data suggest that esophageal ph monitoring and pH > 7 is a poor marker for reflux of duodenal contents into the esophagus. DGER in non-acidic environments (i.e., partial gastrectomy patients) may cause symptoms but does not cause esophageal mucosal injury. Acid and duodenal contents usually reflux into the esophagus simultaneously, and may be contributing to the development of Barrett's metaplasia and possibly adenocarcinoma. proton pump inhibitors decrease acid and DGER by reducing intragastric volume available for reflux and raising intragastric pH. The promotility agent cisapride decreases DGER by increasing LES pressure and improving gastric emptying. CONCLUSIONS: 1) The term "alkaline reflux" is a misnormer and should no longer be used in referring to reflux of duodenal contents. 2) Bilitec is the method of choice in detecting DGER and should always be used simultaneously with esophageal pH-monitoring for acid reflux. 3) DGER alone is not injurious to esophageal mucosa, but can result in significant esophageal mucosal injury when combined with acid reflux. 4) Therefore, controlling esophageal exposure to acid reflux by using proton pump inhibitors also eliminates the potentially damaging effect of DGER.
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ranking = 1014.2726978179
keywords = gastric acid, acid
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3/83. Supraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    An increasing amount of evidence indicates that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a contributing factor to hoarseness, throat clearing, throat discomfort, chronic cough, and shortness of breath. The association between GERD and these supraesophageal symptoms may be elusive. heartburn and regurgitation are absent in more than 50% of patients. Acid reflux should be considered if signs of GERD are present, symptoms are unexplained, or symptoms are refractory to therapy. The diagnosis of GERD may be unclear, despite a careful history and initial evaluation. A high index of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis. An empiric trial of antireflux therapy is appropriate when GERD is suspected. Multiprobe ambulatory pH monitoring is currently the diagnostic test of choice, but the level of sensitivity and specificity for supraesophageal manifestations of GERD is uncertain. Response to antireflux therapy is less predictable than typical GERD. More intensive acid suppression and longer treatment duration are usually required.
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keywords = acid
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4/83. Transient left vocal cord paralysis during laparoscopic surgery for an oesophageal hiatus hernia.

    A 45-year-old male, with symptoms of many years standing of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, was subjected, under general anaesthesia, to laparoscopic fundoplication. Tracheal intubation yielded no problems but great difficulties were encountered during tube insertion into the oesophagus. After surgery, aphonia developed. Laryngological examination demonstrated paralysis of the left vocal cord. Voice strength returned to the pre-operative status after 3 months, and laryngological examination confirmed normal mobility of both cords. The possible cause of the complication was damage to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve which occurred during insertion of the tube into the oesophagus. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease causing 'acid laryngitis' can create conditions favouring this type of complication.
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5/83. head and neck manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common esophageal disease. Besides the typical presentation of heartburn and acid regurgitation, either alone or in combination, GERD can cause atypical symptoms. An estimated 20 to 60 percent of patients with GERD have head and neck symptoms without any appreciable heartburn. While the most common head and neck symptom is a globus sensation (a lump in the throat), the head and neck manifestations can be diverse and may be misleading in the initial work-up. Thus, a high index of suspicion is required. laryngoscopy can confirm the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux. erythema of the posterior larynx may be seen, and the true vocal cords may be edematous. Treatment should be initiated with a histamine H2 receptor blocker or proton pump inhibitor. Lifestyle changes are also beneficial. Untreated, GERD can lead to chronic laryngitis, dysphonia, chronic sore throat, chronic cough, constant throat clearing, granuloma of the true vocal cords and other problems.
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6/83. Supraesophageal complications of gastroesophageal reflux.

    Supraesophageal complications of GERD have become more commonly recognized or suspected by physicians. However, the direct association between these complications and GERD has often been difficult, if not impossible, to establish. Furthermore, the majority of patients with suspected supraesophageal complications of GERD do not have either the characteristic symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation or the definitive findings of esophageal inflammation, which would help reinforce the suspicion of a connection between the supraesophageal complications and GERD. Frequent acid reflux has been shown in patients with various bron-chopulmonary, laryngopharyngeal, or oral cavity disorders. GERD is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints in the population. It is possible that the supraesophageal problems and acid reflux are mutually independent disorders that occur in the same person. The suspected mechanisms of GERD-related supraesophageal complications appear to be directed through two pathways: by a vagal reflex between the esophagus and tracheobronchial tree triggered by acid reflux or by microaspiration that causes contact damage to mucosal surfaces. The most useful diagnostic modality available to the clinician to aid in the diagnosis of supraesophageal GERD complications is the ambulatory pH recording technique. However, the sensitivity and specificity of this test for recording esophageal or pharyngeal acid reflux events has been critically challenged. Despite the many clinical studies that support the theory that GER has a role in suspected supraesophageal complications, only 1 long-term prospective controlled study of a large group of patients with asthma has shown the positive effects of the elimination of acid reflux. With the focus now on "outcomes medicine," there is a serious need for appropriately designed, controlled studies to answer the many questions surrounding a cause-and-effect association between acid reflux and supraesophageal disorders. Because of the lack of convincing proof between acid reflux and suspected supraesophageal complications, the physician must resort to an intent-to-treat strategy as both a primary therapy and a diagnostic trial. High-dose PPI therapy for prolonged periods is the recognized conservative therapy. Operative therapy (i.e., fundoplication operation) is the procedure of choice when overt regurgitation occurs or when medical therapy, although successful, is not practical for long periods. Controlled, well-designed clinical trials and more sophisticated techniques to measure and quantify acid reflux are crucial in the future to help determine which patients with suspected supraesophageal complications actually have acid reflux as a primary cause. The medical community needs to be alerted to the possibility of an association between GERD and supra-esophageal complications so that patients with a GERD-related complication will be recognized and effectively treated.
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ranking = 9
keywords = acid
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7/83. gastroesophageal reflux as a reversible cause of allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation.

    gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is increasingly recognized as contributing to a number of pulmonary disorders. The relationship of GER to pulmonary allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation is unknown. In this report, we describe a lung transplant recipient who developed an acute decline in pulmonary function several months after a retransplantation for chronic rejection. A pulmonary workup at that time, including bronchoscopy with biopsy, revealed bronchial inflammation with no allograft rejection or infection. Because of increasing GI symptoms after retransplantation, the patient also underwent additional testing, which revealed severe acid reflux. The treatment of this patient's acid reflux with Nissen fundoplication surgery resulted in a prompt and sustained improvement in his pulmonary function. We suggest that GER should be considered among the potential causes of allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation.
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ranking = 2
keywords = acid
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8/83. role of esophageal pH recording in management of chronic laryngitis: an overview.

    Chronic laryngitis typically produces symptoms of frequent throat-clearing, soreness, decreased voice quality with use, nonproductive cough, globus sensation, and odynophagia. The endoscopic laryngeal examination usually demonstrates posterior glottic edema, erythema, and increased vascularity and nodularity. There is increasing support for the hypothesis that reflux of acidic gastric contents is often responsible for the symptoms and findings of chronic laryngitis. Prospective trials of acid suppression therapy demonstrate not only efficacy in symptom reduction, but also objective improvement in measurements of voice quality and mucosal erythema. Although traditionally considered the "gold standard" for diagnosis of reflux causing laryngitis, routine esophageal pH recording may result in false negatives in up to 50% of patients. This may confound the diagnosis of chronic laryngitis and delay treatment. Conversely, a positive study during comprehensive therapy may help identify patients who need additional treatment. A single distal probe is probably insufficient for evaluation of a supraesophageal disorder. Current recommendations for double-probe pH study in the evaluation of chronic laryngitis fall into 2 categories: 1) a double-probe pH study is indicated if there is ongoing moderate-to-severe laryngitis despite antireflux precautions and proton pump inhibitor treatment for at least 6 to 12 weeks; and 2) a double-probe pH study is indicated as a baseline measurement before Nissen or Toupet fundoplication. The pH study would also be indicated in patients who have symptoms after fundoplication. There is clearly much more work to be done on the technical issues of obtaining accurate objective data related to laryngeal acidification. In addition, although acid reflux appears to be causative in many cases of chronic laryngitis, further work is indicated to identify reliable testing methods that will predict treatment success.
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ranking = 4
keywords = acid
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9/83. Current medical and surgical treatment options for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common disorders in medicine. The options of medical versus surgical therapies have been highlighted by more potent acid suppression medications and by the introduction of minimally invasive surgery for GERD. Many factors will impact on the treatment selection for each individual patient: the underlying pathophysiology, typical vs atypical symptoms, presence of reflux complications, and success and limitations of medical and surgical treatments. Medical antireflux therapy is very effective and safe, but long-term maintenance therapy is required for most patients. Minimally invasive antireflux surgery has provided excellent results, but outcome is dependent on patient selection and surgical expertise. Careful pre-operative evaluation is essential to determine the optimal treatment and surgical approach.
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ranking = 1
keywords = acid
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10/83. zollinger-ellison syndrome. Clinical presentation in 261 patients.

    We prospectively evaluated the initial presenting symptoms in 261 patients with zollinger-ellison syndrome (ZES) over a 25-year period. Twenty-two percent of the patients had multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1 (men-1) with ZES. Mean age at onset was 41.1 /- 0.7 years, with men-1 patients presenting at a younger age than those with sporadic ZES (p < 0.0001). Three percent of the patients had onset of the disease < age 20 years, and 7% > 60 years. A mean delay to diagnosis of 5.2 /- 0.4 years occurred in all patients. A shorter duration of symptoms was noted in female patients and in patients with liver metastases. abdominal pain and diarrhea were the most common symptoms, present in 75% and 73% of patients, respectively. heartburn and weight loss, which were uncommonly reported in early series, were present in 44% and 17% of patients, respectively. Gastrointestinal bleeding was the initial presentation in a quarter of the patients. patients rarely presented with only 1 symptom (11%); pain and diarrhea was the most frequent combination, occurring in 55% of patients. An important presenting sign that should suggest ZES is prominent gastric body folds, which were noted on endoscopy in 94% of patients; however, esophageal stricture and duodenal or pyloric scarring, reported in numerous case reports, were noted in only 4%-10%. patients with men-1 presented less frequently with pain and bleeding and more frequently with nephrolithiasis. Comparing the clinical presentation before the introduction of histamine H2-receptor antagonists (pre-1980, n = 36), after the introduction of histamine H2-receptor antagonists (1981-1989, n = 118), and after the introduction of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (> 1990, n = 106) demonstrates no change in age of onset; delay in diagnosis; frequency of pain, diarrhea, weight loss; or frequency of complications of severe peptic disease (bleeding, perforations, esophageal strictures, pyloric scarring). Since the introduction of histamine H2-receptor antagonists, fewer patients had a previous history of gastric acid-reducing surgery or total gastrectomy. Only 1 patient evaluated after 1980 had a total gastrectomy, and this was done in 1977. The location of the primary tumor in general had a minimal effect on the clinical presentation, causing no effect on the age at presentation, delay in diagnosis, frequency of nephrolithiasis, or severity of disease (strictures, perforations, peptic ulcers, pyloric scarring). Disease extent had a minimal effect on symptoms, with only bleeding being more frequent in patients with localized disease. patients with advanced disease presented at a later age and with a shorter disease history (p = 0.001), were less likely to have men-1 (p = 0.0087), and tended to have diarrhea more frequently (p = 0.079). A correct diagnosis of ZES was made by the referring physician initially in only 3% of the patients. The most common misdiagnosis made were idiopathic peptic ulcer disease (71%), idiopathic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (7%), and chronic idiopathic diarrhea (7%). Other less common misdiagnosis were crohn disease (2%) and various diarrhea diseases (celiac sprue [3%], irritable bowel syndrome [3%], infectious diarrhea [2%], and lactose intolerance [1%]). Other medical disorders were present in 55% of all patients; patients with sporadic disease had fewer other medical disorders than patients with men-1 (45% versus 90%, p < 0.00001). hyperparathyroidism and a previous history of kidney stones were significantly more frequent in patients with men-1 than in those with sporadic ZES. Pulmonary disorders and other malignancies were also more common in patients with men-1. These results demonstrate that abdominal pain, diarrhea, and heartburn are the most common presenting symptoms in ZES and that heartburn and diarrhea are more common than previously reported. The presence of weight loss especially with abdominal pain, diarrhea, or heartburn is an important clue suggesting the presence of gastrinoma. The presence of prominent gastric body folds, a clinical sign that has not been appreciated, is another important clue to the diagnosis of ZES. patients with men-1 presented at an earlier age; however, in general, the initial symptoms were similar to patients without men-1. gastrinoma extent and location have minimal effects on the clinical presentation. overall, neither the introduction of successful antisecretory therapy nor widespread publication about ZES, attempting to increase awareness, has shortened the delay in diagnosis or reduced the incidence of patients presenting with peptic complications. The introduction of successful antisecretory therapy, however, has dramatically decreased the rate of surgery in controlling the acid secretion and likely led to patients presenting with less severe symptoms and fewer complications. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
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ranking = 1008.2726978179
keywords = gastric acid, acid
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