Cases reported "Gastrointestinal Diseases"

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1/22. Successful intradialytic parenteral nutrition after abdominal "Catastrophes" in chronically hemodialysed patients.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the therapeutic contribution of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) in four acutely ill, hypercatabolic, hemodialysed patients. All underwent major surgery, complicated by infection and malnutrition. DESIGN: A retrospective clinical study. SETTING: An in-center hemodialysis unit, at a tertiary referral hospital. patients: Patient 1: a young woman, with a good renal transplant. Developed gastric lymphoma, which required gastrectomy. After cessation of immunosuppression, "lost" her kidney and returned to hemodialysis. Received IDPN for 4 months and recovered well from severe malnourishment. Patient 2: an elderly, malnourished man, on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Developed biliary peritonitis and bacteremia. In a 3-month period, the patient had four operations. Maintained on IDPN for 4 months. Patient 3: a young and obese man, who suffered from life-threatening staphylococcal aureus peritonitis, resulting in widespread bowel adhesions. Underwent repeated aspirations of purulent ascites, laparoscopy, and explorative laparotomy. IDPN was administered for 4 months and stopped on the patient's request. Patient 4: a young man, who after cadaveric renal transplantation remained hospitalized for 6 months because of acute rejection and peritoneal and retroperitoneal abscesses. Had major surgery performed seven times. Received IDPN for 6 months, and is now well. RESULTS: All four patients benefited from 4 to 6 months of IDPN, as an integral part of intensive supportive and nutritional treatment. weight loss was halted, as patient appetite returned and oral nutrition became adequate. Estimated daily protein intake reached 1.2 g/kg, while caloric intake rose to nearly 30 kcal/kg/d (Table 3). Mean serum albumin levels increased from 25.5 g/L /- 0.9 g/L to 38.0 g/L /- 1.5 g/L. No adverse side effects were seen from IDPN. CONCLUSION: IDPN is a worthwhile part of treatments used in the catabolic, postoperative hemodialysed patient. It is safe and efficient when used over a 6-month period in trying to attenuate existing, or worsening malnutrition in these patients. It should be commenced at an early stage in these patients, after attempts at oral nutritional support have been deemed inadequate.
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2/22. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in arizona: clinical and epidemiological characteristics and review of the literature.

    Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB) is an unusual fungal infection that is rarely reported in the medical literature. From April 1994 through May 1999, 7 cases of GIB occurred in arizona, 4 from December 1998 through May 1999. We reviewed the clinical characteristics of the patients and conducted a case-control study to generate hypotheses about potential risk factors. All patients had histopathologic signs characteristic of basidiobolomycosis. Five patients were male (median age, 52 years; range, 37--59 years) and had a history of diabetes mellitus (in 3 patients), peptic ulcer disease (in 2), or pica (in 1). All patients underwent partial or complete surgical resection of the infected portions of their gastrointestinal tracts, and all received itraconazole postoperatively for a median of 10 months (range, 3--19 months). Potential risk factors included prior ranitidine use and longer residence in arizona. GIB is a newly emerging infection that causes substantial morbidity and diagnostic confusion. Further studies are needed to better define its risk factors and treatment.
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3/22. Experience with modified remotely controlled fluoroscopic equipment for gastrointestinal examination in debilitated patients.

    The concept and realization of a highly automated remotely controlled fluoroscopic system, applicable to the examination of debilitated or uncooperative patients, have been described. The addition of a rotating cradle, remotely controlled barium administration, magazine-fed roll film camera, remotely inflated paddle for prone-pressure spot filming, and a vacuum restraining device have been described for the examination of uncooperative as well as cooperative patients. These patients can be examined with as high a degree of sophistication and automation as is now available. Future developments in this area may lie in the realm of multitable remotely controlled fluoroscopic rooms, operation of the above equipment by a super technologist, programmed gastrointestinal examinations utilizing the above equipment and automated programming, and teleremote controlled fluoroscopy from a centralized location with coaxial cable or microwave transmission.
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4/22. Diverticular disease of the small bowel: report of 27 cases.

    Diverticula of the small bowel are usually asymptomatic but occasionally can present with serious complications. Because of the rarity of small bowel diverticulosis and the limited case number in most published reports, we analyzed one of the largest series with symptomatic small bowel diverticular disease. In this retrospective review, we studied 27 symptomatic patients with diverticula of the small bowel that was treated surgically. The study included 13 male and 14 female patients (age range, 30-87 years; mean age, 69.3 years). Fourteen patients underwent an elective operation for chronic refractory symptoms. Thirteen patients underwent emergency surgery because of rupture of the diverticula and associated peritonitis, diverticulitis and small bowel obstruction, or lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Surgical treatment consisted of resection of the intestinal segment containing the diverticula. All patients were symptom-free postoperatively and no "short bowel" problems developed. abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and bowel obstruction were the most common clinical symptoms. Small bowel diverticulosis should be treated surgically only when refractory symptoms or severe complications are present.
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5/22. A case of fistula of the right common iliac aneurysm to the appendix.

    We report a very rare case of spontaneous ilioappendicial fistula with right common iliac aneurysm. After the aneurysm was opened, afferent and efferent vessels were closed following extraanatomical femorofemoral bypass, and the appendectomy was performed. The wall of the aneurysm showed the atherosclerotic change and histologic study of the appendix confirmed the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Enhanced computed tomography was useful for the diagnosis and the extraanatomical bypass was deemed the most effective operative strategy. The pathogenesis of the fistula was surmised to be related to the appendicitis.
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6/22. carcinoembryonic antigen: clinical and historical aspects.

    To further define and determine the usefulness of CEA, 1100 CEA determinations have been made over the past two years at The ohio State University hospitals on patients with a variety of malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Correlation of CEA titers with history and clinical course has yielded interesting results not only in cancers of entodermally derived tissues, for which CEA has become an established adjunct in management, but also in certain other neoplasms and inflammatory states. The current total of 225 preoperative CEA determinations in colorectal carcinomas shows an 81% incidence of elevation, with postoperative titers remaining elevated in patients having only palliative surgery but falling to the negative zone after curative procedures. An excellent correlation exists between CEA levels and grade of tumor (more poorly differentiated tumors showing lower titers). Left-side colon lesions show significantly higher titers than right-side lesions. CEA values have been shown to be elevated in 90% of pancreatic carcinomas studied, in 60% of metastatic breast cancers, and in 35% of other tumors (ovary, head and neck, bladder, kidney, and prostate cancers). CEA levels in 35 ulcerative colitis patients show elevation during exacerbations (51%). During remissions titers fall toward normal, although in 31% still remaining greater than 2.5 ng/ml. In the six colectomies performed, CEA levels all fell into the negative zone postoperatively. Forty percent of adenomatous polyps showed elevated CEA titers (range 2.5-10.0) that dropped following polypectomy to the negative zone. Preoperative and postoperative CEA determinations are important in assessing the effectiveness of surgery. Serial CEA determinations are important in the follow-up period and in evaluation of the other modes of therapy (e.g., chemotherapy). These determinations of tumor antigenicity give the physician added prognostic insight into the behavior of the tumor growth. Rectal examination with guaiac determinations, sigmoidoscopy, cytology, barium enema, and a good clinical evaluation remain the primary tools for detecting colorectal disease. However, in the high-risk patient suspicious of developing cancer, CEA determinations as well as colonoscopy are now being used increasingly and provide additional highly valuable tools in the physician's armamentarium.
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7/22. GI complications after lung transplantation in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: lung transplantation is now available for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and end-stage lung disease. While pulmonary graft function is often considered the major priority following transplantation, the nonpulmonary complications of this systemic disease also continue. We examined the GI complications in a cohort of patients who underwent transplantation. DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of all patients with CF who underwent transplantation between March 1988 and December 1998 in Toronto. medical records were reviewed, and a short questionnaire was mailed to patients who were alive as of December 1998. RESULTS: There were 80 bilateral lung transplants performed in 75 patients. The questionnaire was distributed to 43 patients, of whom 27 patients (63%) responded. Pancreatic insufficiency requiring enzyme intake was evident in 72 of 75 patients (96%) at the time of surgery. Of three pancreatic-sufficient patients (4%), pancreatic insufficiency was diagnosed in two patients later. Biliary cirrhosis was diagnosed in three patients prior to transplantation. Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) was recorded for 15 patients (20%). Ten patients had a single episode, of which eight episodes occurred early in the postoperative period. Five patients had recurrent episodes. All were medically treated, except for two patients who underwent surgery. Other complications included cholecystitis (n = 3), mucocele of the appendix (n = 1), peptic ulcer disease (n = 3), and colonic carcinoma (n = 1). CONCLUSION: GI complications after lung transplantation are common in patients with CF, and attention should be paid to the risk for DIOS in the early postoperative period. Prevention and early medical treatment are important in order to avoid acute surgery. Close collaboration with the CF clinic, in order to diagnose and treat CF-related complications, is recommended.
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8/22. Unusual causes of acute abdomen in a Nigerian hospital.

    Acute abdomen is the most common abdominal emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality in General surgical practice. Over a 7-year period, a study of unusual causes of acute abdomen was undertaken, with the aim of identifying these causes and outcome of operative management. Eleven cases were identified accounting for 4% of cases of acute abdomen seen during the period of the study. Four cases of liver diseases (33.3%) comprising 2 patients (16.7%) with ruptured primary liver cell carcinoma, 1 (one) case each of haemoperitoneum due to ruptured liver haemangioma and haemorrhagic disorders from liver cirrhosis. One patient had acute leukaemia with massive haemoperitoneum and acute abdomen. Five (45.5%) had gastrointestinal perforations; 1 patient (9%) each had multiple jejunal perforations, perforation of stomal ulcer at gastrojejunostomy site, perforation of gastric cancer; perforated carcinoid tumour of sigmoid colon and idiopathic perforation of the caecum. There was also a case of caecal volvulus. mortality was 7 patients (63.6%). All patients with liver pathology and acute leukaemia died. The cases of malignant tumour perforation were well and alive 4-6 years after the operation. CONCLUSION: Operation could have been avoided in 45.5% of these cases if the appropriate investigations, had been available and carried out.
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9/22. Bowel perforation as a presenting feature of pheochromocytoma: case report and literature review.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of colonic perforation as the initial manifestation of pheochromocytoma and discuss the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism. methods: The clinical, biochemical, radiologic, and pathologic findings are described. In addition, the management of the patient is discussed and the relevant literature reviewed. RESULTS: A 57-year-old man presented with large bowel perforation after pseudo-obstruction. Emergency laparotomy revealed two cecal perforations but no obstructing lesion; however, hypertension persisting postoperatively raised the suspicion of pheochromocytoma. This diagnosis was confirmed by measurement of 24-hour urinary hydroxymethylmandelic acid excretion and computed tomography of the abdomen. The tumor was subsequently resected without complication or recurrence of bowel symptoms. The pathophysiology of bowel perforation in patients with pheochromocytoma is not entirely clear but most likely involves bowel ischemia and necrosis as a result of mesenteric vasoconstriction. This setting coupled with increased intraluminal pressure as a consequence of pseudo-obstruction may cause perforation. CONCLUSION: Bowel perforation in patients with pheochromocytoma is rare and thought to be a consequence of intestinal ischemia and altered motility. This is potentially a life-threatening complication, particularly if the tumor remains undiagnosed and an emergency surgical procedure is necessary. Pharmacologic treatment of pheochromocytoma during pseudo-obstruction may prevent subsequent perforation. Clinicians should be aware of the potential gastrointestinal presentation of this tumor.
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10/22. Sinistral portal hypertension. A case report.

    Sinistral portal hypertension is a clinical syndrome of gastric variceal hemorrhage in the setting of splenic vein thrombosis due to a primary pancreatic pathology. The distinguishing features from other forms of portal hypertension are preserved liver function and a patent extrahepatic portal vein. The important causes include acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocysts and pancreatic carcinomas. Benign pancreatic neoplasms only rarely cause sinistral portal hypertension. splenic vein thrombosis complicates 7-20% of patients having pancreatitis or a pancreatic pseudocyst; however, bleeding occurs in only approximately 5% of patients. The diagnosis of sinistral portal hypertension is achieved by a combination of gastroscopy, liver function tests, ultrasound examination (with Doppler) and/or contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen. A mere demonstration of sinistral portal hypertension does not warrant intervention. An expectant management is justifiable in asymptomatic patients with pancreatitis. However, concomitant splenectomy may be considered in patients undergoing operative treatment of symptomatic chronic pancreatitis if sinistral portal hypertension and gastroesophageal varices are present. In patients presenting with gastric variceal hemorrhage, splenectomy (with treatment for the primary pancreatic pathology, e.g. distal pancreatectomy) is curative with excellent long term results.
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