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1/7. Gastrointestinal zygomycotic infection caused by Basidiobolus ranarum: case report and review.

    Basidiobolus species are filamentous fungi belonging to the order entomophthorales. Unlike other zygomycetes, Basidiobolus species have been mainly associated with a tropical form of subcutaneous zygomycosis in otherwise healthy individuals. Visceral disease caused by this pathogen is rare, but cases of gastrointestinal infection with Basidiobolus ranarum have been reported worldwide. In many of these reports, the inflammatory disease of the colon has been confused with Crohn's disease. We report the third case of B. ranarum gastrointestinal infection in the united states, which was initially treated as inflammatory bowel disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = zygomycosis
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2/7. Basidiobolus ranarum as an etiologic agent of gastrointestinal zygomycosis.

    Basidiobolus ranarum is a known cause of subcutaneous zygomycosis. Recently, its etiologic role in gastrointestinal infections has been increasingly recognized. While the clinical presentation of the subcutaneous disease is quite characteristic and the disease is easy to diagnose, gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis poses diagnostic difficulties; its clinical presentation is nonspecific, there are no identifiable risk factors, and all age groups are susceptible. The case of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis described in the present report occurred in a 41-year-old Indian male who had a history of repair of a left inguinal hernia 2 years earlier and who is native to the southern part of india, where the subcutaneous form of the disease is indigenous. diagnosis is based on the isolation of B. ranarum from cultures of urine and demonstration of broad, sparsely septate hyphal elements in histopathologic sections of the colon, with characteristic eosinophilic infiltration and the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. The titers of both immunoglobulin g (IgG) and IgM antibodies to locally produced antigen of the fungus were elevated. The patient failed to respond to 8 weeks of amphotericin b therapy, and the isolate was later found to be resistant to amphotericin b, itraconazole, fluconazole, and flucytosine but susceptible to ketoconazole and miconazole. One other noteworthy feature of the fungus was that the patient's serum showed raised levels of Th2-type cytokines (interleukins 4 and 10) and tumor necrosis factor alpha. The present report underscores the need to consider gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases and suggests that, perhaps, more time should be invested in developing standardized serologic reagents that can be used as part of a less invasive means of diagnosis of the disease.
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ranking = 5
keywords = zygomycosis
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3/7. Invasive gastrointestinal zygomycosis in a liver transplant recipient: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Gastric zygomycosis is a rare but potentially lethal complication in transplant patients. Forty-two cases of gastric mucormycosis have been described in the literature, with a mortality of 98%. methods: We report of a case of gastric mucormycosis in a 45-year-old male undergoing liver transplantation for alcohol-induced cirrhosis. The diagnosis was made 20 days after transplantation in a biopsy of a bleeding gastric ulcer identified during a reoperation for a common bile duct stricture. RESULTS: After the surgical procedure and therapy with amphotericin b, the patient made a good recovery and is alive and well 2 years after transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Gastric mucormycosis should be suspected in those patients in whom gastrointestinal symptoms such a pain or bleeding are present. Because the diagnosis is dependent on histology, the importance of biopsy cannot be underestimated. Once diagnosed, a successful outcome depends on effective treatment with amphotericin.
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ranking = 5
keywords = zygomycosis
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4/7. Disseminated zygomycosis: report of four cases and review.

    We present four cases of disseminated zygomycosis that illustrate the characteristic clinical syndromes and natural history of this infection. The zygomycetes affect individuals immunosuppressed by age, drug therapy, or underlying disease. A previous splenectomy or deferoxamine therapy may be an additional factor in the development of disseminated zygomycosis. Clinical syndromes reflect vascular invasion and organ infarction. diagnosis requires consideration of risk factors followed by biopsy of the affected organ for culture and for demonstration of broad nonseptate hyphae in tissue sections. Despite advances in the management of many bacterial and fungal infections in the immunosuppressed host, the results of therapy for disseminated zygomycosis remain dismal.
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ranking = 7
keywords = zygomycosis
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5/7. First culture-proven gastrointestinal entermophthoromycosis in the united states: a case report and review of the literature.

    The zygomycosis are fungal infections often occurring in compromised hosts. We report the first culture-proven case of a gastrointestinal infection in the united states by Basidiobolus haptosporus (ranarum). The clinical and histological features are noted in order to distinguish this infection from the more widely reported mucormycosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = zygomycosis
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6/7. Gastrointestinal entomophthoramycosis caused by Basidiobolus haptosporus.

    There was described the first cultural proven case of gastrointestinal entomophthoramycosis caused by B. haptosporus. A review of the literature on gastrointestinal zygomycosis led us to presume that similar clinical reported cases have been also caused by this fungus. A commentary on the designation of the clinical forms of the infections caused by Zygomycetes was also made.
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ranking = 1
keywords = zygomycosis
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7/7. Invasive gastrointestinal zygomycosis in a liver transplant recipient: case report and review of zygomycosis in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    zygomycosis is a rare but highly invasive fungal infection that occurs in transplant recipients. We report a case of invasive gastrointestinal zygomycosis that occurred in a heavily immunosuppressed liver transplant recipient 5 days after retransplantation and that presented as gastric perforation. Despite aggressive surgical and antifungal therapy, the patient died. We review 46 cases of invasive zygomycosis in solid-organ transplant recipients. The rhinocerebral form of zygomycosis occurred in 57% of cases; the pulmonary, cutaneous, and disseminated forms each occurred in 13%; the renal form occurred in 2%; and the gastrointestinal form occurred in 2%. The infection ensued a median of 2 months after transplantation (range, 5 days to 8 years). Seventy-six percent of the patients had diabetes or had received antirejection therapy, mainly in the form of corticosteroids, before the onset of zygomycotic infection. The mortality for patients who received antifungal therapy and/or who underwent surgery was 50% for those who had rhinocerebral zygomycosis, none for those who had pulmonary and cutaneous zygomycosis, and 100% for those who had disseminated zygomycosis. knowledge of the diverse clinical manifestations (including gastrointestinal involvement, as is illustrated by our case) and predisposing factors in transplant recipients with zygomycosis can aid in early recognition of this disease in this patient population.
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ranking = 15
keywords = zygomycosis
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