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1/533. Advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    endoscopy has a rapidly expanding role in diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal disease. ( info)

2/533. Refractory gastrointestinal symptoms: a combined medical psychiatric approach.

    gastroenterology has always been a collaborative specialty. Through the years, gastroenterologists have created important partnerships with pathologists, radiologists, surgeons, gynecologists, and pediatricians. These collaborative relationships have greatly enhanced patient care and research. This article reviews the literature on psychiatric comorbidity in the medical setting and gastroenterology practice in particular. The ability to recognize psychiatric comorbidity and relate it to the patient's presenting gastrointestinal (GI) complaint can pay great dividends for patients. The ability to apply these observations to help facilitate psychiatric collaboration and specifically, to initiate behavioral treatment, represents a new dimension in the care of chronic GI disorders. Finally, the relationship between physical and sexual abuse and GI illness and the usefulness of psychiatric interventions in the treatment of chronic GI disorders is reviewed in detail. ( info)

3/533. Eosinophilic enterocolitis and visceral neuropathy with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    A patient is described who was found to have both eosinophilic enterocolitis and visceral neuropathy with chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The etiology and pathogenesis of this rare combined disorder of the gastrointestinal tract are discussed. Although eosinophilic enterocolitis is amenable to conservative treatment, surgery may be necessary for palliation in selected patients with pseudo-obstruction due to visceral neuropathy. ( info)

4/533. polymerase chain reaction based human leucocyte antigen genotyping for the investigation of suspected gastrointestinal biopsy contamination.

    BACKGROUND: Mislabelling or contamination of surgical specimens may lead to diagnostic inaccuracy, particularly within gastrointestinal pathology when multiple small mucosal biopsy specimens are commonly taken, and where a tiny fragment of foreign tissue may be indistinguishable from true biopsy material using histological assessment alone. AIMS: To assess the utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping techniques for the investigation of potentially mislabelled or contaminated gastrointestinal biopsy specimens. patients: Ten cases (28 samples) in which mislabelling or contamination was suspected, comprising four upper gastrointestinal tract biopsies and six colonoscopic biopsy series. methods: Direct and nested PCR-sequence specific primer (SSP) based HLA class II genotyping was performed on dna extracted from formalin fixed and paraffin wax embedded tissue (23 samples) or peripheral blood leucocytes (five samples). RESULTS: A full HLA-DRB1 genotype was determined in all 28 samples. In seven cases the HLA-DRB1 genotype of the putative contaminant was different to that of the corresponding reference tissue, confirming different individual origins for the contaminant and reference material. In one case the contaminant tissue was shown to possess the same HLA-DRB1 alleles as a second patient (probable source). In the remaining three cases the same HLA-DRB1 alleles were detected within the potential contaminant and reference tissues. CONCLUSIONS: PCR based HLA class II genotyping is a valuable tool for investigating potential contamination or mislabelling within gastrointestinal biopsy specimens and this report has confirmed contamination in seven of ten cases studied. ( info)

5/533. Gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of human ehrlichiosis: 8 cases and a review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: ehrlichiosis has emerged as an increasingly recognized tick-borne rickettsial disease. It can affect multiple organs including the gastrointestinal tract and liver. signs and symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly. patients commonly have elevated liver transaminases early in the course of illness as well as leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. If not diagnosed and treated in a timely fashion, ehrlichiosis can progress to multiorgan failure. methods: Between 1992 and 1998, 8 patients meeting the CDC criteria for ehrlichiosis were diagnosed and treated at the John L. McClellan Memorial veterans Hospital and University Hospital in Little Rock, Ark. These cases and English-language articles relating to gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of ehrlichiosis, identified by searching medline and manually reviewing bibliographies of retrieved articles, are reviewed. RESULTS: Seven of the eight patients had elevated transaminases on presentation which increased rapidly initially and slowly returned to normal. Three of our patients had hyperbilirubinemia. One of the eight patients presented with hepatomegaly. Three had hyperbilirubinemia with a peak bilirubin of 13.8 mg/dl. Two patients (25%) had a rash on presentation. All 8 patients were treated with and responded to doxycycline. One developed multiorgan failure but eventually recovered with intensive medical care and doxycycline. CONCLUSION: To avoid treatment delay and serious complications, in the appropriate clinical setting ehrlichiosis should be considered as a cause of elevated liver transaminases. ( info)

6/533. Gastrointestinal zygomycotic infection caused by Basidiobolus ranarum: case report and review.

    Basidiobolus species are filamentous fungi belonging to the order entomophthorales. Unlike other zygomycetes, Basidiobolus species have been mainly associated with a tropical form of subcutaneous zygomycosis in otherwise healthy individuals. Visceral disease caused by this pathogen is rare, but cases of gastrointestinal infection with Basidiobolus ranarum have been reported worldwide. In many of these reports, the inflammatory disease of the colon has been confused with Crohn's disease. We report the third case of B. ranarum gastrointestinal infection in the united states, which was initially treated as inflammatory bowel disease. ( info)

7/533. endoscopy as a tool for diagnosing and treating gastrointestinal angiodysplasia in haemodialysis patients.

    Gastroenteric angiodysplasia is an important cause of haemorrhage in chronic renal failure patients. This paper reports on 2 patients on maintenance haemodialysis with upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to different manifestations of angiodysplasic lesions (sudden appearance of haematemesis and melaena in one case, progressive anaemia with apparent resistance to erythropoietin in the other case). Exploratory endoscope examination of the first digestive tract showed in both cases the presence of bleeding angiodysplasic lesions. Both patients were there and then submitted to surgical endoscopy, during which the bleeding angiodysplasic lesion was sclerosed with physiological salt solution plus adrenaline 1/10000 and 1% polydocanol. In one patient, bleeding occurred again ten days later, making renewed surgical endoscopy necessary. In the course of this an elastic ligature was made to the superangular angiodysplasia. A year later in both cases there were no direct or indirect signs of further bleeding; an endoscopic check-up showed the treated lesions to be sclerosed. endoscopy offers the unique possibility of being used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in a single session. In expert hands, endoscope therapy is effective and markedly reduces the risk of side effects. ( info)

8/533. Successful intradialytic parenteral nutrition after abdominal "Catastrophes" in chronically hemodialysed patients.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the therapeutic contribution of intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) in four acutely ill, hypercatabolic, hemodialysed patients. All underwent major surgery, complicated by infection and malnutrition. DESIGN: A retrospective clinical study. SETTING: An in-center hemodialysis unit, at a tertiary referral hospital. patients: Patient 1: a young woman, with a good renal transplant. Developed gastric lymphoma, which required gastrectomy. After cessation of immunosuppression, "lost" her kidney and returned to hemodialysis. Received IDPN for 4 months and recovered well from severe malnourishment. Patient 2: an elderly, malnourished man, on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Developed biliary peritonitis and bacteremia. In a 3-month period, the patient had four operations. Maintained on IDPN for 4 months. Patient 3: a young and obese man, who suffered from life-threatening staphylococcal aureus peritonitis, resulting in widespread bowel adhesions. Underwent repeated aspirations of purulent ascites, laparoscopy, and explorative laparotomy. IDPN was administered for 4 months and stopped on the patient's request. Patient 4: a young man, who after cadaveric renal transplantation remained hospitalized for 6 months because of acute rejection and peritoneal and retroperitoneal abscesses. Had major surgery performed seven times. Received IDPN for 6 months, and is now well. RESULTS: All four patients benefited from 4 to 6 months of IDPN, as an integral part of intensive supportive and nutritional treatment. weight loss was halted, as patient appetite returned and oral nutrition became adequate. Estimated daily protein intake reached 1.2 g/kg, while caloric intake rose to nearly 30 kcal/kg/d (Table 3). Mean serum albumin levels increased from 25.5 g/L /- 0.9 g/L to 38.0 g/L /- 1.5 g/L. No adverse side effects were seen from IDPN. CONCLUSION: IDPN is a worthwhile part of treatments used in the catabolic, postoperative hemodialysed patient. It is safe and efficient when used over a 6-month period in trying to attenuate existing, or worsening malnutrition in these patients. It should be commenced at an early stage in these patients, after attempts at oral nutritional support have been deemed inadequate. ( info)

9/533. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis. Morphologic findings in a cluster of six cases.

    We describe the histopathologic features of 6 cases of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis examined at 4 Phoenix, AZ, area hospitals during the last 4 years. Resected stomach and intestinal specimens were characterized by marked mural thickening with fibrosis, prominent tissue eosinophil infiltration and palisading granulomatous inflammation around pale fungal hyphae. In 2 cases, there was colonic perforation. Basidiobolus ranarum hyphae (associated with spore-like spherules in 4 cases) were identified within tissue sections; the irregularly branched, thin-walled, occasionally septated hyphae were typically surrounded by a thick eosinophilic cuff (Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon). Although the histologic features of B ranarum are well described in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, gastrointestinal involvement has presented considerable diagnostic difficulty. Before the occurrence of this cluster of cases, intra-abdominal B ranarum infection has been reported only rarely. ( info)

10/533. Gastrointestinal lesions in an adult patient with Henoch-Schonlein purpura.

    A 28 year-old man was admitted because drug toxication, due to a high dose of antipsychotic drugs, presented purpuric rash on both legs, lower abdominal pain, arthralgia, and fresh-bloody stool. colonoscopy observed numerous small ring-like petechiae in the rectum and in the sigmoid colon. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy found a few petechiae in the antrum of the stomach and in the duodenal second portion. He was treated with coagulation factor x III after admission. After 38 days, there was no abnormal mucosa in the colorectum, the duodenal second portion, or the antrum of the stomach. The disappearance of gastrointestinal lesions correlated with the course of the illness. Gastrointestinal tracts should be thoroughly observed in patients with Henoch-Schonlein purpura. ( info)
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