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1/26. Haemosuccus pancreaticus: a clinical challenge.

    BACKGROUND: Haemosuccus pancreaticus is a rare complication of pancreatitis. It is a diagnostic problem for even the most astute clinician and a challenge for the expert endoscopist. We report a 25-year-old male patient who had all the features usually seen in haemosuccus pancreaticus patients: recurrent obscure upper gastrointestinal bleeding, pancreatitis, pseudocyst formation, ductal disruption, fistula and pancreatic ascites. The patient was treated by subtotal pancreatectomy, splenectomy and drainage of the pseudocyst. Although pancreatic duct communication with the surrounding vasculature could not be ascertained, we strongly believe the patient had haemosuccus pancreaticus because, over a follow-up period of 3 years, the patient was not only ascites free, but did not experience any further upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We believe that in evaluating patients with recurrent obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, one should always remember that the pancreas is a part of the gastrointestinal tract and, like other organs, is prone to blood loss.
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2/26. Trans-anastomotic porto-portal varices in patients with gastrointestinal haemorrhage.

    AIM: Porto-portal varices are commonly seen in patients with segmental extra-hepatic portal hypertension and develop to provide a collateral circulation around an area of portal venous obstruction. It is not well recognized that such communications may also develop across surgical anastomoses and be the source of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The possible mode of development of such communications has not been previously discussed. MATERIALS AND methods: Over a 3-year period between 1995 and 1998, porto-portal varices were demonstrated across surgical anastomoses in four patients who were referred for the investigation of acute (two), acute-on-chronic (one) and chronic gastrointestinal bleeding (one). Their medical notes and the findings at angiography were reviewed. RESULTS: Three patients had segmental portal hypertension due to extra-hepatic portal vein (one) or superior mesenteric vein (two) stenosis/occlusion. One patient had mild portal hypertension due to hepatic fibrosis secondary to congenital biliary atresia. At angiography all patients were shown to have varices crossing previous surgical anastomoses. These varices were presumed to be the cause of bleeding in three of the four patients; the site of bleeding in the fourth individual was not determined. CONCLUSIONS: Trans-anastomotic porto-portal varices are rare. They develop in the presence of extra-hepatic portal hypertension and presumably arise within peri-anastomotic inflammatory tissue. Such varices may be difficult to manage and their prognosis is poor when bleeding occurs.
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3/26. A potential error in the quantitation of fecal blood loss: concise communication.

    chromium-51-labeled red cells were used to quantitate fecal blood loss in a patient with chronic upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. On Day 1, the stool guaiac was positive but the blood loss indicated by 51Cr was less than 1 cm3. blood loss in the stool by 51Cr did not become significant until Day 3, when it measured 23 cm3. The failure to detect abnormal blood loss on Day 1, and probably on Day 2, appears to be due to a long intestinal transit time from a proximal bleeding site. The problem of slow intestinal transit is not uncommon and could lead to a false-negative study or falsely low estimates of fecal blood loss. This problem could be minimized by beginning stool collection on Day 3 or by delaying stool collection until the appearance in the stool of an oral nonabsorbable marker swallowed when the 51Cr-tagged red cells are injected.
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4/26. Idiopathic localized dilatation of the ileum: CT findings.

    We report computed tomographic and pathologic findings of an adult case of idiopathic localized dilatation of the ileum presenting as hematochezia and bowel perforation. If a cyst-like structure that has narrow communications with proximal and distal bowel loops and a layered enhancement pattern similar to those of adjacent bowels on the computed tomogram of a patient with gastrointestinal bleeding, idiopathic localized dilatation of the ileum should be suspected.
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5/26. Primary aortoenteric fistula: report of six new cases.

    Primary aortoenteric fistula (PAEF) is defined as a communication between the native aorta and the gastrointestinal tract, in contrast to secondary fistulas, which arise between a suture line of a vascular graft and the intestine. arteriosclerosis is the predominant cause of PAEF and accounts for more than two-thirds of the cases reported. The pathogenesis is usually based on direct adhesion of a segment of the gastrointestinal tract to an aortic aneurysm, followed by progressive erosion through the bowel wall. The clinical presentation is usually one of intermittent gastrointestinal haemorrhage resulting in lethal exsanguination. Pain in the abdomen, a pulsatile abdominal mass or fever may be present. The choice of various diagnostic procedures is often decided by the clinical presentation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, ultrasound and CT scan may be useful in the evaluation of these patients. Current recommendations for repair include debridement of the aneurysmal aorta, repair with an in situ graft and primary repair of the gastrointestinal tract, followed by aggressive antimicrobial therapy. We present six cases of PAEF surgically treated at the St. Radboud Hospital, the Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital in Nijmegen and the Lukas Hospital in Apeldoorn over a period of 15 years.
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6/26. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding due to primary aortoduodenal fistula: report of two rare cases.

    Primary aortoduodenal fistulas are among the rare causes of gastrointestinal hemorrhage and are defined as communications between the native abdominal aorta and the duodenum. The mortality rate is very high if undiagnosed and untreated. Two male patients, 61- and 76-years-old, were admitted to the emergency unit at different times with the chief complaints of abdominal pain, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and pulsatile mass in their abdomen. The first case experienced sudden massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding while being prepared for an emergency operation in the intensive care unit, and cardiac arrest developed within a few minutes. After resuscitation and successful surgical operation, the patient woke up without any neurological defect or sequelae and was extubated at the 9th postoperative hour. The second patient, who had been wounded by gun shot 30 years previously was admitted to the hospital because of simple gastrointestinal hemorrhage. A para-aortic pseudo-aneurysm connected with the duodenum was diagnosed by computed tomography. After successful surgical operation, the patient was discharged. In this report, a case of ruptured primary aortic aneurysm and another case of para-aortic pseudo-aneurysm connected with the duodenum, both of which were treated successfully by surgical operation, are presented.
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7/26. Endovascular repair of a bleeding secondary aortoenteric fistula with acute leg ischemia: a case report and review of the literature.

    The endovascular approach seems very attractive for patients with bleeding secondary aortoenteric fistulas (SAEF) and limb ischemia, particularly when there is no associated sepsis. Aortic stent-grafting can rapidly seal the aortoenteric communication and ensure limb reperfusion. In the present case, a 53-year-old man with a bleeding SAEF and acute leg ischemia underwent aortic stent-grafting. Ten months later, CT and leukocyte scan (Tc-99m) showed no evidence of graft infection and the patient remains well 18 months postoperatively. In the typical patient with a bleeding SAEF, endoluminal treatment, if feasible anatomically, should be considered as first-choice treatment whether it represents a "bridging" step or a "definite" solution.
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8/26. Aortoesophageal fistula due to double aortic arch and prolonged nasogastric intubation: case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: The authors present a patient and describe other cases from the literature which demonstrate that prolonged use of nasogastric tubes can result in life-threatening aortoesophageal fistula formation in patients with a double aortic arch. CONCLUSION: Aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) is an abnormal communication between the esophagus and the aorta. It can cause massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage. We present an infant with an operatively corrected double aortic arch, who developed this complication after prolonged nasogastric intubation.
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9/26. Arterioenteric fistulae: diagnosis and treatment by angiography.

    Two cases of massive gastrointestinal haemorrhage caused by arterioenteric fistulae are presented. In both cases, bleeding was controlled by interventional angiography. In the first case, a fistula between an aberrant right subclavian artery and a reconstructed oesophagus was temporarily occluded with a balloon catheter as a pre-surgical measure. In the second case a communication between the external iliac artery and the colon in a patient with invasive cervical cancer was treated by embolization. An arterioenteric fistula should be considered as a possible cause of acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage in post-operative or cancer patients and aortography or pelvic arteriography may be required to make the diagnosis.
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10/26. arteriovenous fistula and portal hypertension secondary to islet-cell tumor of the pancreas.

    A case of portal hypertension secondary to an arteriovenous fistula in a pancreatic tumor is presented. Recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage prompted endoscopy which revealed esophageal varices and an abnormal papilla of Vater. ultrasonography and arteriography were instrumental in demonstrating the nature of the pathological process. In this situation portal hypertension resulted from increased portal venous flow rather than portal obstruction. Correction must include obliteration of systemic arterial to portal venous communication.
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