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1/451. In situ repair of a secondary aortoappendiceal fistula with a rifampin-bonded Dacron graft.

    Secondary aortoenteric fistulas remain challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Although the duodenum is most frequently involved, other intestinal segments are possible sites for fistulization. We report here a case of graft-appendiceal fistula revealed by recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding 11 years after abdominal aortic aneurysm replacement. The preoperative diagnosis was not achieved by endoscopy or imaging assessment. Despite recommended principles of total graft excision and extraanatomic bypass, appendectomy and in situ rifampin-bonded graft reconstruction were performed because of the advanced age and poor arterial runoff. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient remains well 17 months after operation.
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2/451. Fatal polyarteritis nodosa with massive mesenteric necrosis in a child.

    polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare vasculitic syndrome in childhood. There are few reported cases of ischaemic necrosis of the intestine and even fewer survivors in adults. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy with PAN and an acute abdomen that required operative intervention. Evidence was found of mesenteric arteritis with large ischaemic segments resulting in infarction and perforation.
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3/451. A case of bleeding gastric lipoma: US, CT and MR findings.

    We report a case of gastric lipoma which manifested with an episode of acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Preoperative diagnosis was based on the US, CT, and MRI findings, as the results of gastrointestinal endoscopy were inconclusive. The role of current imaging methods, and particularly of MRI, is discussed.
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4/451. Ileal varices associated with recurrent bleeding in a patient with liver cirrhosis.

    We report a rare case of massive and recurrent bleeding from ileal varices in a patient with hepatitis c virus-positive liver cirrhosis. A 66-year old woman, who had undergone laparotomy and blood transfusion 36 years before (because of an extrauterine pregnancy) and endoscopic sclerotherapy for esophageal varices 1 year previously, was admitted to our hospital with loss of bright red blood per rectum. The bleeding was massive and recurrent, and frequent blood transfusions were required. Endoscopic studies failed to find the bleeding site. In the venous phase of selective superior mesenteric angiography, mesenteric varices in the lower part of the abdominal cavity were observed. laparotomy was performed to control the repeated bleeding which had lasted for more than 1 month. Varices communicating with the right ovarian vein were found on the ileal wall and segmental resection of the ileum was performed. Histological examination demonstrated a massive varicose vein and several dilated veins in the submucosa. The patient's postoperative course was favorable, with no hemorrhagic events during a follow-up of more than 6 months after surgery. Ileal varices should be considered in the diagnosis of a patient who presents with lower gastrointestinal bleeding and portal hypertension.
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5/451. An unusual cause of haemorrhagic ascites following blunt abdominal trauma.

    Slow intraperitoneal haemorrhage following blunt abdominal trauma may present as haemorrhagic ascites. Such haemorrhage is usually due to rupture of spleen, liver or damage to small bowel mesenteric vasculature. We encountered a patient with bleeding from ruptured exogastric leiomyoblastoma. Two cases of traumatic rupture of gastric leiomyosarcomas have been reported previously. The operative treatment is usually delayed and the diagnosis established only at laparotomy. We suggest a high level of suspicion and early laparotomy.
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6/451. Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation observed to bleed from the bile duct and a duodenal ulcer: report of a case.

    A 48-year-old man with recurrent episodes of biliary colic and subsequent pancreatitis was admitted to undergo a cholecystectomy. A gastroduodenal fiberscopic examination was performed because of massive melena on the seventh day after admission. It revealed a shallow ulcer on the posterior wall of a duodenal bulbus with rubor and an exposed vessel, which was clipped endoscopically to stop the bleeding. Further observations showed the papilla of Vater to be bleeding from the papilla. A contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan demonstrated a dilatation of the common bile duct and several dilated vasculatures around the portal vein, some of which drained into the portal vein. Based on the angiography findings, a diagnosis of arteriovenous malformation in the pancreas head was obtained and an embolization of the gastroduodenal artery was performed. Although the melena subsided, he underwent a pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy to prevent the recurrence of hemorrhaging. The histopathological findings of the bile duct revealed inflammatory cell infiltration and a detachment of the epithelium, except in a small part of the bile duct. A rupture of a damaged vessel inside the bile duct was observed, which was thought to be the cause of hemobilia. Sections of the pancreatic head demonstrated an inflammatory lesion with fibrosis and saponification as well as a large degree of arteriovenous anastomosis. The patient was discharged on the 35th day after the operation following an uneventful postoperative course.
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7/451. Small-bowel investigation in occult gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding after careful endoscopy of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract is predominantly of small-bowel origin. patients presenting with overt blood loss account for a select subpopulation of those with small-bowel bleeding. Although relatively rare, these patients often require repeated blood transfusions, investigation, and hospitalization before a diagnosis is reached. These events have a considerable negative impact on the patient's quality of life. Standard evaluation using enteroclysis, tagged red cell studies, and angiography are proven to be of limited value in this context. Push enteroscopy has significant advantages in this patient group, with the ability to deliver endoscopic therapy. Sonde enteroscopy is now reserved for a few patients to guide decisions on surgery, particularly in those with significant medical comorbidity. Definitive evaluation may require perioperative enteroscopy, but many patients can be managed without the need for surgery. A team approach by physician, radiologist, and surgeon following locally agreed algorithms is essential for the successful management of this challenging clinical problem.
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8/451. Intra-operative enteroscopy for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Small bowel enteroscopy has been reported useful in the non-surgical evaluation of the small intestine in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding but findings may be limited due to incomplete small bowel intubation and a lack of tip deflection. Intra-operative enteroscopy (IOE) is accepted as the ultimate diagnostic procedure for complete evaluation of the small bowel in these patients. Two patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and deep anemia underwent IOE during surgical exploration. Angiodysplastic lesion with a diameter of 3 cm was found at jejunum in the first patient and segmental jejunal resection was performed. Enteroscopy showed red punctate lesions with a diameter of 1-3 mm located at proximal jejunum and extending to the ileum in the second patient. Total jejunal resection was performed. There was no recurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding during 36 months follow-up.
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keywords = operative
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9/451. A new technique for intraoperative enteroscopy using a 12-mm trocar.

    Intraoperative enteroscopy is a valuable method for localizing gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin. The insertion and manipulation of an endoscope through an enterotomy, however, may result in significant trauma to the intestinal wall, as well as contamination of the abdominal cavity. We have devised a new technique for the introduction of the endoscope that lessens trauma to the bowel wall and allows a complete enteroscopy with minimal contamination.
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keywords = operative
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10/451. Ruptured primary splenic angiosarcoma into the colon. Presentation as anal bleeding.

    A 71-year-old woman presented with a six month history of constipation and abdominal discomfort, with anal bleeding during the last days. ultrasonography and CT-scan of the abdomen showed a large heterogeneous mass that was located in the splenic region, but the nature and origin of the tumour could not be clearly established preoperatively. The clinical diagnosis was of abdominal tumour with colonic and splenic involvement, and a left hemicolectomy and splenectomy were performed. Pathologic examination revealed a primary angiosarcoma of the spleen with penetration and fistulization of the tumour into the large bowel. The patient received adjuvant radiation therapy, but she died of extensive metastastic disease from her primary angiosarcoma of the spleen nine months after surgery. In summary, splenic angiosarcoma is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. This highly aggressive neoplasm has an overall poor prognosis, specially if it is associated with rupture and haemoperitoneum. As this case highlights, unusual forms of rupture may lead to atypical clinical presentations, increasing even more the difficulty in the diagnosis.
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