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1/153. Fecal occult blood tests in occult gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Occult gastrointestinal bleeding is diagnosed by using one of the commercially available fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). guaiac-based slide tests are most frequently used, although the more specific immunochemical methods are promising. The guaiac tests are inexpensive, nonspecific, qualitative measures of stool blood, and their use requires dietary and drug restrictions. Clinicians need to be aware of the causes of false-positive and false-negative test results. Although specific for the presence of human blood, immunochemical tests are more expensive and tend to react also to physiological quantities of blood in fecal specimens. Whichever test is chosen, it must be processed and read correctly. Annual FOBT screening for colorectal cancer, combined with periodic flexible sigmoidoscopy, is a cost-effective method of detecting early, curable colorectal cancer.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer
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2/153. Autoimmune pancreatitis, pancreatic mass, and lower gastrointestinal bleed.

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIMP) is a recently described clinical entity causing chronic pancreatitis. It often presents with diffuse enlargement of the pancreas and/or a focal mass at the head of the pancreas causing common bile duct obstruction and jaundice. In most instances, AIMP is mistaken for pancreatic cancer. A number of laboratory abnormalities such as positive antinuclear antibody, hypergammaglobulinemia, and antibody to carbonic anhydrase are often present in these patients. Currently, pancreatic biopsy demonstrating characteristic histopathologic changes is essential to establish the diagnosis. We report the first case of AIMP presenting as a pancreatic tail mass and lower gastrointestinal bleed.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = cancer
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3/153. Enteroscopic identification of an adenocarcinoma of the small bowel in a patient with previously unrecognized hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome.

    Tumors of the small bowel are uncommon and seldom suspected on a clinical basis. Together with the relative inaccessibility of the small bowel to endoscopic investigation, the rarity of these tumors undoubtedly delays their diagnosis. The case reported is of a patient with an adenocarcinoma of the jejunum presenting as gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin. diagnosis was by push enteroscopy, after several years of unsuccessful radiological and upper and lower endoscopic evaluation. The patient's family fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome, which was previously unrecognized. This report emphasizes the value of push enteroscopy and the limits of radiography of the small bowel when investigating patients with obscure GI bleeding. It also underlines the importance of a careful evaluation of the pedigree (concerning history of colorectal and extracolonic cancer) of all patients, including those who present with adenocarcinoma of the small bowel; it is similarly important to consider the possibility of small bowel cancer in members of families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome.
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ranking = 4
keywords = cancer
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4/153. Ruptured primary splenic angiosarcoma into the colon. Presentation as anal bleeding.

    A 71-year-old woman presented with a six month history of constipation and abdominal discomfort, with anal bleeding during the last days. ultrasonography and CT-scan of the abdomen showed a large heterogeneous mass that was located in the splenic region, but the nature and origin of the tumour could not be clearly established preoperatively. The clinical diagnosis was of abdominal tumour with colonic and splenic involvement, and a left hemicolectomy and splenectomy were performed. Pathologic examination revealed a primary angiosarcoma of the spleen with penetration and fistulization of the tumour into the large bowel. The patient received adjuvant radiation therapy, but she died of extensive metastastic disease from her primary angiosarcoma of the spleen nine months after surgery. In summary, splenic angiosarcoma is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. This highly aggressive neoplasm has an overall poor prognosis, specially if it is associated with rupture and haemoperitoneum. As this case highlights, unusual forms of rupture may lead to atypical clinical presentations, increasing even more the difficulty in the diagnosis.
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ranking = 0.25691774511175
keywords = neoplasm
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5/153. life-threatening toxicity in a dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase-deficient patient after treatment with topical 5-fluorouracil.

    In humans, 80-90% of an administered dose of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is degraded by dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD; EC 1.3.1.2), the initial rate-limiting enzyme in pyrimidine catabolism. Cancer patients with decreased DPD activity are at increased risk for severe toxicity including diarrhea, stomatitis, mucositis, myelosuppression, neurotoxicity, and, in some cases, death. We now report the first known cancer patient who developed life-threatening complications after treatment with topical 5-FU and was shown subsequently to have profound DPD deficiency. RT-PCR and genomic PCR methodologies were used to identify a G to A mutation in the GT 5' splicing recognition sequence of intron 14, resulting in a 165-bp deletion (corresponding to exon 14) in this patient's DPD mRNA. immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were then used to demonstrate that the aberrant DPD mRNA is translated into a nonfunctional DPD protein that is ubiquitinated. We conclude that the presence of this metabolic defect combined with topical 5-FU (a drug demonstrating a narrow therapeutic index) results in the unusual presentation of life-threatening toxicity after treatment with a topical drug. These data further suggest that degradation by the ubiquitin-proteosome-mediated system plays a role in the elimination of the DPD protein.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = cancer
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6/153. A case of jejunal intussusception with gastrointestinal bleeding caused by metastatic testicular germ cell cancer.

    BACKGROUND/AIM: We report an unusual case of metastatic testicular germ cell tumor with its unusual presentation. METHOD: A patient presented to the San Joaquin General Hospital with gastrointestinal bleeding and obstruction and a testicular mass is described. The patient's clinical course is followed and the literature reviewed. RESULTS: The patient presented with jejunal intussusception due to metastatic testicular cancer. He was treated with orchiectomy and bowel resection followed by postoperative chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the need to consider metastatic small-bowel obstruction and/or intussusception in patients presenting with testicular mass and abdominal pain. copyright copyright 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = cancer
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7/153. Treatment of radiation-induced proctitis with sucralfate enemas.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of radiation-induced proctitis treated with sucralfate enemas. CASE SUMMARY: A 77-year-old white woman was transferred from an acute care institution to our inpatient rehabilitation unit with impaired mobility and reduced activities of daily living. Her condition was secondary to myopathy and peripheral neuropathy associated with postradiation chemotherapy and metastatic ovarian carcinoma. During her stay, she developed hematochezia and pain secondary to a diagnosis of radiation-induced proctitis. Her hemoglobin had reached a nadir of 7.3 g/dL. The patient received blood transfusions and was started on 10% w/v sucralfate retention enemas 2 g/20 mL daily for 12 consecutive days. She was symptom-free at discharge, with a stable hemoglobin of approximately 10 g/dL. DISCUSSION: proctitis is a common adverse effect of radiotherapy to the lower abdomen and pelvic area. sucralfate is an aluminum complex that acts as a local cytoprotective agent against ulceration of the gastrointestinal mucosal lining. Rectal administration of sucralfate, as described in our patient and reported in published case studies, may provide an alternative therapy for patients with radiation-induced proctitis. CONCLUSIONS: sucralfate suspension enemas provide a viable treatment option in patients who are intolerant of, refractory to, or not candidates for standard therapy for radiation-induced proctitis.
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ranking = 199.59493820946
keywords = radiation-induced
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8/153. life-threatening digestive haemorrhage from duodenal recurrence of gastric cancer.

    Invasion of the duodenum by gastric carcinoma is not uncommon. The duodenal invasion by transpiloric infiltration through the submucosal layer or lymphatic spread frequently being microscopic and in minimal number of cases involving the mucosa, is generally asymptomatic and detected only in postmortem examinations. We report a case of life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding from cancer recurrence at duodenal stump after subtotal gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma. In such cases it can be very hard to find the haemorrhagic source because of the difficulties encountered in endoscopic and radiological evaluation of the duodenal stump.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = cancer
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9/153. Surgical treatment of recalcitrant radiation-induced gastric erosions.

    BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled bleeding as a result of radiation gastritis in patients who have pharyngo-laryngo-esophagectomy and gastric pull-up is seldom reported. Surgical resection in the management of this condition has rarely been described. METHOD: A 66-year-old man with hypopharyngeal cancer was treated by pharyngo-laryngo-esophagectomy and gastric transposition. He received postoperative radiotherapy and had recurrent hemorrhagic gastritis, necessitating surgical resection. The manubrium was resected to access the mediastinal part of the gastric conduit. The diseased part of the gastric conduit was removed and a free jejunal graft was interposed to replace the resected stomach. RESULTS: Manubrial resection offered adequate access to the stomach transposed in the mediastinum, and the life-threatening bleeding gastritis was successfully controlled by surgical resection. CONCLUSION: Surgical resection of the radiation-damaged transposed stomach through a manubrial resection approach can safely be performed. Free jejunal graft is the choice of reconstruction of the circumferential defect.
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ranking = 100.29746910473
keywords = radiation-induced, cancer
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10/153. Esophageal carcinoma in a patient with bleeding esophageal varices.

    More than 20 cases of esophageal carcinoma have been reported to develop after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS), and this technique is implicated in the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer. We report a case of esophageal carcinoma presenting as a superficial ulcer in a patient with esophageal varices with no prior EIS. Whether the development of esophageal carcinoma in patients with previous EIS is coincidental or consequential is controversial. Such carcinoma might have already existed before EIS in some reported cases. A causal relationship between EIS and esophageal carcinoma cannot be established without further clarification by a well-designed study.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = cancer
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