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11/153. Intravascular occlusive therapy: use of interventional radiology in cancer patients.

    Selective transcatheter intravascular occlusion in the treatment of cancer patients is a valuable extension of interventional diagnostic radiology. Intra-arterial embolization may be performed with various substances, including autologous clot, autologous subcutaneous tissue, Gelfoam, and stainless steel coil. Clinical applications in cancer patients include control of gastrointestinal and genitourinary hemorrhage, preoperative reduction of tumor vascularity, control of local symptoms, and therapeutic reduction of tumor bulk. The technique has been used for preoperative and palliative treatment of neoplasms of the head and neck, kidney, liver, spleen, and soft tissue and bone. Transcatheter intravascular occlusion should be performed only by radiologists experienced in angiographic techniques. Inadvertent occlusion of a normal vessel and thromboembolism are possible complications.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer, neoplasm
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12/153. Anorectal melanoma: report of two cases.

    We have described the clinicopathologic findings in two cases of anorectal melanoma, and extracted the salient features from the medical literature. The disease is rare. melanoma arises from the anal squamous membrane and very often spreads upward through submucosal planes, producing secondary satelites in the rectum. Trauma from defecation, vast lymphatic and venous systems in the anorectal region, and high invasiveness of the tumor cells eviden;ly account for early distant metastases. Histologically, the neoplastic cells often mimic other cancers. Treatment is surgical, with dismal end results.
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ranking = 0.15351938216752
keywords = cancer
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13/153. Fatal hemorrhage complicating carcinoma of the esophagus. Report of four cases.

    Four cases of esophageal carcinoma complicated by fatal hemorrhage are reported. All four patients had recently completed radiation therapy. An aortoesophageal fistula was present in two cases; fibrinoid necrosis of the esophageal arteries was present in the other two. The esophageal tumor was localized in two cases and had disappeared in one case. In one patient it had metastasized widely. Ninety-nine other reports of esophageal cancer and fatal hemorrhage are reviewed from the literature. Aortoesophageal fistula was the cause of hemorrhage in 78 cases. Occlusion of the vasa vasorum by thrombosis, inflammation, neoplastic cells or radiation injury appears to be the cause of aortic necrosis and fistula formation. Prompt surgical approach, if possible, should be used to control hemorrhage, as the primary tumor may be localized to the esophagus only.
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ranking = 0.15351938216752
keywords = cancer
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14/153. Metastases to the esophagus causing gastrointestinal bleeding.

    A case of hypernephroma metastatic to the esophagus and presenting with massive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is described. The literature on metastatic esophageal neoplasm is reviewed and the methods of spread and prognosis summarized.
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ranking = 0.078883706994859
keywords = neoplasm
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15/153. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage secondary to erosion of a biliary Wallstent in a woman with pancreatic cancer.

    A 77-year-old patient with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma sustained a life-threatening, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage 1 month after placement of a biliary Wallstent. Radiographic and endoscopic studies revealed a choledocho-arterio-enteric fistula caused by erosion of the stent through the posterior duodenal wall. The patient was treated successfully with arterial embolization. This represents an unusual case of arterial bleeding with choledocho-arterio-enteric fistulization into the duodenum subsequent to biliary stent erosion.
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ranking = 0.61407752867009
keywords = cancer
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16/153. splenosis presenting as occult gastrointestinal bleeding.

    A 48-year-old man presented with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia. Routine endoscopic evaluation was nondiagnostic. angiography demonstrated multiple apparent arteriovenous malformations. Exploratory laparotomy revealed numerous splenic implants along the small and large bowels, some of which had apparently eroded through the bowel mucosa and bled. Excision of these penetrating lesions prevented further bleeding. An incidentally noted renal cell cancer was also resected. The patient's splenosis was the result of childhood trauma that caused splenic rupture and precipitated splenectomy. splenosis develops frequently following traumatic splenic rupture. Experimental evidence suggests that the presence of an intact spleen suppresses the growth and development of splenic implants. Following splenectomy, splenules may replace some of the "housekeeping" and immunologic functions of the spleen, but even patients with documented splenosis should be considered functionally hyposplenic. While in most cases splenules cause no symptoms, splenosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of previously splenectomized patients who present with unexplained masses or occult bleeding.
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ranking = 0.15351938216752
keywords = cancer
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17/153. granular cell tumor--a unique neoplasm of the internal anal sphincter: report of a case.

    Granular cell tumors are rare, invariably benign, and often solitary tumors, which infrequently involve the gastrointestinal tract. We report the unique presentation of a granular cell tumor of the internal anal sphincter in a 75 year-old female. The tumor was detected during investigation of new rectal bleeding and was excised using a transanal approach and sphincter repair. At five-year follow-up the patient reported normal continence to stool and flatus and demonstrated no evidence of tumor recurrence. Immunohistochemical studies cite the Schwann neural cell as the origin of the granular cell tumor. Cytoplasmic features include acidophilic, p-aminosalicylic acid-positive, diastaseresistant granules. Granular cell tumors may be located anywhere in the body, but anorectal involvement is rare. In our own search of the world literature, no other cases were reported specifically to involve the anal sphincter. Granular cell tumors are usually detected incidentally but may be symptomatic, especially when the anorectal region is involved. Symptoms include perianal discomfort and bleeding. Adequate local excision is effective for both diagnosis and treatment of anorectal granular cell tumors. Careful follow-up should be performed after excision because of the risk of recurrence.
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ranking = 0.31553482797944
keywords = neoplasm
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18/153. radiation enteritis: a rare complication of the transverse colon in uterine cancer.

    radiation therapy is a powerful method for the control of cancer. The utilization of abdominal or pelvic radiation has been extended, and the incidence of radiation enteritis appears to be increasing. The majority of the induced lesions is in the distal ileum, sigmoid colon, or rectum. Reported here is an unusual case of radiation enteritis which caused a severe sequelae of stricture in the transverse colon as a long-term effect of therapeutic irradiation for uterine cancer, and required a surgical resection.
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ranking = 0.92111629300514
keywords = cancer
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19/153. Rectourethral fistula and massive rectal bleeding from iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy: a case report.

    iodine-125 brachytherapy is an effective well-tolerated treatment for localized prostate cancer. Gastrointestinal complications of brachytherapy (minor rectal bleeding or tenesmus) are uncommon. Rectal ulceration or rectourethral fistulas after prostate brachytherapy are rare. We present a case of massive refractory rectal bleeding and rectourethral fistula, a complication of prostate brachytherapy never before reported. As a result of the patient's life-threatening symptoms aggressive surgical therapy was necessary.
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ranking = 0.15351938216752
keywords = cancer
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20/153. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding as a metastatic manifestation of breast cancer: a case report and review of the literature.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old woman with known metastatic lobular breast cancer presented with fever, epigastric pain, hematemesis, and melena. A bleeding, ulcerated gastric metastasis was found and was treated with endoscopic therapy, omeprazole, and hormonal therapy. The patient was alive and well 13 months later. The bleeding was probably precipitated by necrosis of the lesion during chemotherapy. DISCUSSION: gastrointestinal tract metastases from primary breast carcinoma are present in 14% to 35% of cases in autopsy series, with gastric involvement in 6% to 18% of cases. Recognized much less commonly during life than in autopsy studies, they can occur anywhere in the gut and can mimic virtually any gastrointestinal disorder. endoscopy and barium studies facilitate diagnosis. Gastric lesions that have been noted include "linitis plastica", nodules, polyps, and ulcers. They are usually due to lobular breast carcinoma and resemble primary gastric carcinoma on microscopy. Reported cases of bleeding gastric metastases have been treated successfully with various local and systemic modalities. The median survival time of reviewed cases was four months from presentation (with a range of zero to 24 months). CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal metastasis is an underdiagnosed complication of breast cancer. Gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic breast cancer is an uncommon presentation that is readily diagnosed and that can be treated successfully by endoscopic hemostatic therapy.
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ranking = 1.0746356751727
keywords = cancer
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