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1/69. Signet ring epithelioid stromal tumor of the small intestine.

    Cells having a signet ring appearance can occur in mesenchymal, lymphoid, and other nonepithelial neoplasms. We report the case of an intestinal stromal tumor with smooth muscle differentiation and a prominent signet ring cell component. The presence of signet ring forms of smooth muscle cells in sections of paraffin-embedded tissue often contrasts with a lack of cytoplasmic spaces by electron microscopy, and the ultrastructural finding of signet ring-like areas in the present case can be attributed to the fact that the tissue for electron microscopy was retrieved from paraffin blocks where this peculiar artifact already existed. Ultrastructural examination of the signet ring-like areas suggests that they originated as retraction spaces which may have resulted from variations in intracellular tension forces related to the distribution of actin filaments.
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keywords = neoplasm
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2/69. Correlation between clinical course and CEA levels during chemotherapy.

    In order to evaluate the correlation between clinical progress and CEA levels in gastroenteric tumours, particularly during chemotherapeutic treatment, CEA assay was performed on 330 patients (126 with gastric neoplasms, 204 with large bowel carcinoma). 175 out of these had a pre-operative assay. Moreover CEA test positivity (CEA larger than or equal to 5 ng/ml according to the technique employed by us) is higher in colon neoplasms compared with gastric neoplasms and in adenocarcinomas in comparison with undifferentiated forms; besides it depends on the pathologic stage. In colon tumours CEA test showed a higher positivity for left than for right forms (66.6% versus 38%). 240 patients were followed up with repeated CEA assays: the following observations were made: a - After radical surgery 72% of the patients shows normalized CEA values. b - In 198 patients who underwent radical surgery, not requiring chemotherapy, there was a close correlation between CEA levels and clinical evolution in 98% of the cases. c - 60 out of 68 patients (88%) submitted to chemotherapy for advanced neoplasms show a close correlation between CEA response to the chemotherapy and clinical response (p less than 0.001). These investigations stress, above all, the importance of CEA test to monitor the treatments performed (surgical and chemotherapeutic) and to adopt, eventually, more effective chemotherapeutic modalities.
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ranking = 4
keywords = neoplasm
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3/69. High mitotic index associated with poor prognosis in gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumour.

    AIMS: Three gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumours (GANT) were characterized by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Two of the three cases occurred in the small intestine, while the third was found in the stomach. Besides the immunohistochemical and ultrastructural description, the aim of this study was to examine the relation between the known and accepted predictive factors (ploidy data, the S-phase fraction, the mitotic and MIB-1 index and the size of the tumour) and the survival of the patients. methods AND RESULTS: The immune profile showed that 3/3 cases were vimentin and NSE, 2/3 were synaptophysin and PGP 9.5 positive, while 1/3 also showed S100 positivity. Ultrastructurally, all the cases had dense core granules, one of them contained skenoid fibres. The flow cytometry revealed diploid dna in all cases, however, significant differences could be seen in the proliferative activity of the individual neoplasms. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the published data of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) generally, neither the MIB-1 index and the ploidy data nor the size of the primary tumour helped to predict the clinical progression of the examined GANTs. However, the high proliferative activity (57 mitoses/10 HPF) and the elevated S-phase fraction (24%) was associated with advanced, metastatic and recurring disease in case 3. On the basis of these three cases, high mitotic activity is the most reliable factor in predicting aggressive clinical behaviour.
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keywords = neoplasm
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4/69. Amphicrine tumor.

    The term amphicrine refers to cells, and tumors, which show both exocrine and endocrine features. Author s aim was to analyse the characteristics of these neoplasms. 40 suspicious cases were reviewed. Mucin-stains (PAS, diastase-PAS, Stains-all, Alcian-blue), immunohistochemistry (antibodies against Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE), and chromogranin a (CGA), and electronmicroscopic studies were performed to demonstrate exocrine and/or endocrine features of the tumor cells. By means of these methods, 16 cases turned out to be amphicrine tumors. Among them, there were 4 sinonasal, 1 bronchial, 1 mediastinal, 8 gastrointestinal and 2 suprarenal gland neoplasms. In connection to the subject, a brief review is given of amphicrine tumor, regarding its etiological and pathological aspects. These tumors form a distinct clinicopathological entity and should be separated from both neuroendocrine tumors and adenocarcinomas.
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ranking = 2
keywords = neoplasm
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5/69. Comparative microsatellite analysis in discerning origin of disseminated tumor: the case of a patient with malignant ascites and a history of multiple tumors.

    The origin of metastatic carcinoma is now always easily resolved on the basis of conventional dinical and pathological parameters, particularly in patients with more than 1 primary tumor. When 1 of the tumors is a renal cell carcinoma, the clinical picture is further confounded by the tendency of these tumors to be locally silent, to metastasize to unusual sites, and to disseminate long after removal of the primary tumor. We compared tumors for loss (ie, deletion) of loci on chromosomal arms 3p, 5q, 11q, and 18q in a patient with a malignant ascites fluid, a remote history of renal and colonic neoplasms, and a strong clinical suspicion of disseminated gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. dna from microdissected tumors and normal tissues was subjected to polymerase chain reaction-based microsatellite analysis. Even though the clinical picture suggested a gastrointestinal origin, comparison of genetic alterations clearly showed that the malignant ascites represented recurrence of the renal cell carcinoma. The malignant ascites and the primary renal cell carcinoma showed identical patterns of allelic loss at all loci tested. In contrast, the malignant ascites and colonic adenoma showed discordant patterns of allelic loss. Comparative microsatellite analysis provides a rapid genetic approach for discerning the origin of metastatic tumor spread. This may be a useful diagnostic adjunct when tumor origin is not clear on clinical or morphological grounds. In some instances, it may even provide a reasonable alternative to an extensive and costly conventional work-up.
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keywords = neoplasm
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6/69. GANT-like gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumours with oncocytic features.

    We describe two cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumours with prominent oncocytic features. Both had features consistent with differentiation towards the interstitial cells of cajal (CC). They were composed of nests and bundles of cells with abundant, deeply granular, eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed positivity with c-kit, vimentin and CD34 antibodies in both neoplasms. Ultrastructurally the neoplastic cells showed characteristic features of CC; they had synapse-like structures and dense core cytoplasmic granules. Oncocytic features were confirmed by immunohistochemistry using anti-mitochondrion antibody in both cases and by electron microscopy in one case (case 1). Although the CC are frequently described as mitochondrion-rich cells, oncocytic changes have not previously been reported as a feature of gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumour (GANT)-like stromal tumours.
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keywords = neoplasm
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7/69. gastrointestinal stromal tumors treated by laparoscopic surgery: report of three cases.

    Three cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) were treated by a laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach. The tumor characteristics were confirmed to be nonepithelial, nonlymphomatous, nonmyogenic, and nonneurogenic gastrointestinal neoplasms with an uncertain origin which were CD34-positive and actin- and S-100-negative. The malignant potential was estimated based on the mitotic figures and growth rates. The results suggest that laparoscopic surgery is an adequate strategy for gastric submucosal tumors including GIST, and also indicates this technique to be a curative, safe, and minimally invasive procedure for both diagnosis and treatment.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neoplasm
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8/69. c-kit immunocytochemical staining in the cytologic diagnosis of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor. A report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a distinct group of mesenchymal neoplasms recently shown to exhibit differentiation toward interstitial cells of cajal (ICC). C-kit (CD117), an immunocytochemical marker consistently expressed in normal ICC, is demonstrable in 81-100% of GISTs. We report two cases wherein immunocytochemical staining for c-kit aided in the diagnosis of metastatic GIST in the liver. CASES: Two patients, a 37-year-old female (case 1) and a 76-year-old male (case 2), presented with multiple nodules in the liver. They had a history of small bowel GIST resected 11 and 1 year earlier, respectively. Fine needle aspiration of the liver nodules showed loose aggregates or fascicles of spindle cells with elongated to oval nuclei, rare paranuclear vacuoles and eosinophilic cytoplasm. The spindle cells showed minimal (case 1) to moderate nuclear pleomorphism (case 2), with occasional mitotic figures seen in case 2. Immunocytochemical staining revealed strong and diffuse staining for c-kit; it was negative for actin, desmin, CD34 and S-100 protein. Thus, a diagnosis of metastatic GIST was rendered. Histologic review of the primary small bowel GISTs of both cases and the subsequently resected liver nodules in case 1 confirmed the diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Metastatic GIST may pose diagnostic problems due to its broad morphologic spectrum and variable cytologic atypia; in particular, distinction from leiomyosarcoma and other mesenchymal tumors is difficult. The diagnostic difficulty is compounded when the prior history of gastrointestinal tumor is not available or forgotten and when GIST is the initial presentation of the tumor. C-kit is a highly sensitive and reliable immunocytochemical marker that can aid in the diagnosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neoplasm
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9/69. Duodenal carcinoid tumor: report of a case diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy with immunocytochemical correlation.

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a reliable and accurate method for the endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal malignancies and it is particularly well suited for evaluation of submucosal lesions. We report the cytopathologic findings of a case of malignant carcinoid tumor of a 44-year-old male who presented with melena and a nonhealing duodenal ulcer. Endoscopic ultrasound examination revealed a submucosal lesion in the pyloric region. Fine-needle aspiration revealed abundant cellularity with tumor cells arranged in sheets and loose groups and dispersed single cells in a clean background. Papillary fragments, capillaries cuffed by tumor cells, and rosette formation were also noted. The cells were moderate in size, round to oval, with a small subpopulation of spindle-shaped cells. The nuclei were uniform, round to oval, with smooth nuclear borders. The chromatin pattern was finely granular with a salt-and-pepper appearance. The cytoplasm of the cells was small to moderate in amount, pale, and showed fine granularity. The differential diagnosis included a neuroendocrine neoplasm vs. an epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The tumor cells were focally positive for chromogranin and negative for CD34, supporting the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine neoplasm. The differential diagnosis of primary gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors from gastrointestinal stromal tumors can be very difficult in cytologic material. In cases when diagnostic material is scant, or only present on one smear, the use of smear division and cell transfer in order to perform immunocytochemical stains may be of considerable value to confirm the neuroendocrine nature of the neoplasms.
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ranking = 3
keywords = neoplasm
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10/69. neuroendocrine tumors of the gastroenteric canal. Anatomopathological and diagnostic-therapeutic definition. Description of a case with a rare cecal localisation.

    The authors take the case of a neuroendocrine tumour of the cecum as the starting point for an analysis of the anatomopathological and diagnostic-therapeutic aspects of these neoplasms. Furthermore, the authors underline that neuroendocrine tumours (NET) of the colon represent an extremely rare nosological entity and that they are heterogeneous from a clinical and biochemical point of view, thus making a reliable preoperative diagnosis a problem that is still difficult to resolve today.
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keywords = neoplasm
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