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1/20. X-linked charcot-marie-tooth disease caused by a novel point mutation in the connexin-32 gene.

    We report the clinical and electrophysiological findings of a patient with X-linked charcot-marie-tooth disease and a novel point mutation in the connexin-32 gene. A 31-year-old man presented with a 5 year history of progressive imbalance and distal weakness in his legs. Electrophysiological studies confirmed an asymmetric, predominantly axonal sensorimotor neuropathy with some demyelinating features. genetic testing revealed a G/A transition (Ala40Thr) in a conserved transmembrane region of the connexin-32 gene.
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2/20. A female with coffin-lowry syndrome and "cataplexy".

    coffin-lowry syndrome (CLS) is an X-linked semidominant condition, caused by mutations in the gene encoding the ribosomal protein s6 kinase-2 (RSK-2), a growth factor regulating protein kinase, which is mapped to Xp 22.2. The syndrome is mainly seen in males. It is manifested by moderate to severe mental retardation and characteristic facial, hand and skeletal malformations. We present a female patient with fully manifested CLS, confirmed by molecular analysis, who experienced daily drop episodes, diagnosed as "cataplexy". The episodes were precipitated by emotional or auditory stimuli and were significantly reduced, by selective serotonine re-uptake inhibitors.
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3/20. A novel CACNA1F mutation in a french family with the incomplete type of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness.

    PURPOSE: To describe a French family with the incomplete type of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2) associated with a novel mutation in the retina-specific calcium channel alpha(1) subunit gene (CACNA1F). DESIGN: Interventional case report. methods: Two family members with a history of nonprogressive night blindness and subnormal visual acuity were clinically examined and the genotype determined by molecular genetic analysis. RESULT: Both patients had clinical manifestations characteristic of CSNB2. Electrophysiologically, we found a predominant reduction of the ERG B-wave in the maximal response. Both rod and cone function were subnormal, with the latter tending to be more attenuated. We identified a C deletion at nucleotide position 4548, resulting in a frameshift with a predicted premature termination at codon 1524. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical and genetic study of a novel mutation in the CACNA1F gene adds further support to the contention that CSNB2 represents a genetically distinct retinal disorder of a calcium channel.
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4/20. Postmortem findings in the coffin-lowry syndrome.

    The coffin-lowry syndrome (CLS) is a congenital disorder that can be recognized by retarded growth and development, the characteristic appearance of the face and hands, and often by the typical deformities of the back and chest; there are many other anomalies. The history of the syndrome is reviewed, noting the x-linked semidominant pattern of inheritance, and two autopsies are presented and compared with the three autopsy reports that have been published previously. The five young patients died at ages between 18 to 28 years of advancing pneumonia, aspiration of food into the trachea, or postoperative complications. There were lesions or abnormalities in the heart, brain, lungs, liver, skeleton, kidneys, intestines, and other organs. Molecular geneticists have located the CLS gene or Rsk-2 gene at Xp22.2 and demonstrated that it works by influencing the activation of other genes. The "monopolygenic" pattern may help to explain the large number of seemingly unrelated abnormalities that make up this syndrome.
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ranking = 24980.17464027
keywords = x-linked, dominant
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5/20. Unusual manifestations in X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta.

    This paper describes a female with X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta (XAI). This case is unusual in having taurodontism, pulpal calcifications, coronal defects prior to tooth eruption and unerupted teeth. These findings have been reported in some cases of autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive AI but have not previously been documented in XAI.
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6/20. A family with X-linked recessive fusion of metacarpals IV and V.

    We describe a family with a distinctive malformation of the hand consisting of the fusion of the 4th and the 5th metacarpal bones. Usually this anomaly is clinically recognizable by an ulnar deviation of the 5th finger; moreover, the 5th metacarpal is usually hypoplastic and the 5th ray is consequently short. There is, however, great variability in expression, so the degree of fusion may range from minimal to complete and also the external aspect of the hand may vary. This anomaly can be either isolated or part of a syndrome. For the isolated form, two possible hereditary mechanisms have been proposed: autosomal dominant and X-linked recessive. Our family is consistent with the latter, with only affected males and no instances of male-to-male transmission. Of note, there are very few X-linked recessive disorders that affect the hand in a such a specific way.
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7/20. Cerebral, cerebellar, and colobomatous anomalies in three related males: sex-linked inheritance in a newly recognized syndrome with features overlapping with Joubert syndrome.

    We present a so far unrecognized X-linked mental retardation syndrome with features overlapping with Joubert syndrome (JBS). Two brothers showed hypotonia, mental retardation, ocular abnormalities with impaired vision and colobomas and a breathing pattern compatible with JBS. neuroimaging revealed cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and ventriculomegaly. A tentative diagnosis of JBS was made, and autosomal recessive inheritance considered most likely. In a subsequent pregnancy that occurred after artificial donor insemination, ultrasound in the 22nd week revealed a Dandy-Walker malformation and hydrocephaly. At autopsy at 34 weeks of gestation, the male infant showed cerebellar vermis aplasia and abnormalities of the brainstem and cerebral cortex. He was considered to have the same disorder as his two half-brothers. This renders the pedigree highly suggestive of X-linked inheritance. The clinical symptoms of this syndrome resemble JBS. However, the absence of the molar tooth sign and the X-linked inheritance do not support JBS. We propose the name X-linked cerebral-cerebellar-coloboma syndrome to distinguish the two disorders. Differentiation of the two disorders is especially important in genetic counseling, where artificial donor insemination may be considered as a means of reducing the recurrence risk, or when female relatives of the patient are concerned.
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ranking = 99916.69856108
keywords = x-linked
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8/20. Two novel frameshift mutations of the EBP gene in two unrelated Thai girls with Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome.

    Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome, also known as X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2), is characterized by skeletal abnormalities, cutaneous anomalies and cataracts. CDPX2 is caused by mutations in the emopamil-binding protein (EBP). We report two unrelated Thai female patients with clinically typical CDPX2, in which we discovered two novel and de novo frameshift mutations: 506-507delAG and 540-541delCC. This study demonstrates that EBP is the gene responsible for CDPX2 across different populations and extends the total number of confirmed mutations to 55.
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keywords = dominant
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9/20. Male-to-male transmission of X-linked Alport syndrome in a boy with a 47,XXY karyotype.

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a genetically heterogeneous renal hereditary disease. Male-to-male transmission has been considered fully indicative of autosomal dominant AS. We report a family with male-to-male transmission of X-linked AS due to an extra X chromosome of paternal origin in the proband. Linkage analysis excluded the autosomal loci and demonstrated segregation with the COL4A5 locus (Xq22.3). Sperm FISH analysis from his father detected an increased XY disomy. Mutation screening of the COL4A5 gene identified a splicing mutation, c.4688G>A. The proband and his paternal grandmother showed random x chromosome inactivation. However, a preferential expression of the aberrantly spliced transcript was detected in the proband when compared to his grandmother. This finding could explain why the AS phenotype of this 47,XXY boy resembles more an affected male than a female carrier. This is the first reported case of concurrence of Alport and Klinefelter syndromes.
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keywords = dominant
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10/20. incontinentia pigmenti (IP2): familiar case report with affected men. literature review.

    incontinentia pigmenti is a genodermatosis described by Garrod and in 1920 by Bloch, Sulzberger, Siemens y Bardach. It is an ectodermic disorder that affects skin, teeth, eyes and may also have neurological problems. The IP2 name describes the histological characteristics, the incontinence of melanin into the melanocytes cells in the epidermal basal layer and its presence in superficial dermis. IP2 is an x-linked dominant condition but genetic heterogeneity may exist. CASE REPORT: The patient was 4 yrs 5 months old when she came for the first time. In a physical exploration she presented sparse and thin hair, eyelashes and eyebrows, beaked nose, labial protrusion, the four central teeth have a conic crown and there was also a delayed eruption of other teeth, right eye strabismus, hipoacusia, language defects and a trunk, legs, feet, and face dermatosis characterized by grouped vesicles, hyperkeratotic and warty lesions and brownish-gray lesions in a lineal pattern. The patient s father had hypopigmented lesions in the posterior regions of both legs. The oral clinical and radiographic exams showed diverse anomalies. Both the patient's and the father's chromosomal studies were normal. DISCUSSION: In the present case we can see that the father has IP2 without supernumeraries X, with the antecedent that his mother had something similar. It is possible that the inheritance was autosomic dominant or it is a different mutation of NEMO (NF-kappa-B essential modulator) gene to a classical one, which was found in some affected men. It is necessary to carry out a molecular study of these patients.
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ranking = 27386.559893138
keywords = x-linked, x-linked dominant, dominant
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