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11/131. magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a 9-day-old heterozygous female child with creatine transporter deficiency.

    An X-linked creatine deficiency syndrome caused by mutations in the creatine transporter gene SLC6A8/CRTR mapped to Xq28 has recently been described. Essential in the recognition of this disorder is the absence of creatine on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) examination. A 9-day-old heterozygous female child with this syndrome demonstrated a significant reduction of creatine on proton MRS. She is a carrier of the R514X nonsense mutation. ( info)

12/131. A female with coffin-lowry syndrome and "cataplexy".

    coffin-lowry syndrome (CLS) is an X-linked semidominant condition, caused by mutations in the gene encoding the ribosomal protein s6 kinase-2 (RSK-2), a growth factor regulating protein kinase, which is mapped to Xp 22.2. The syndrome is mainly seen in males. It is manifested by moderate to severe mental retardation and characteristic facial, hand and skeletal malformations. We present a female patient with fully manifested CLS, confirmed by molecular analysis, who experienced daily drop episodes, diagnosed as "cataplexy". The episodes were precipitated by emotional or auditory stimuli and were significantly reduced, by selective serotonine re-uptake inhibitors. ( info)

13/131. Disseminated cryptosporidium infection in an infant with hyper-IgM syndrome caused by CD40 deficiency.

    We report the case of an infant with severe respiratory infections, chronic diarrhea, failure to thrive, and disseminated cryptosporidium parvum infection. Laboratory investigations disclosed a diagnosis of hyper-IgM syndrome caused by CD40 deficiency. ( info)

14/131. X-linked thrombocytopenia caused by a mutation in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) gene that disrupts interaction with the WAS protein (WASP)-interacting protein (WIP).

    OBJECTIVE: We studied two adult brothers with severe congenital thrombocytopenia in order to determine the genetic etiology of their inherited disorder. Despite the absence of eczema or immunodeficiency, a mutation of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) gene was suspected because of the presence of microthrombocytes. MATERIALS AND methods: Peripheral blood was obtained for characterization of hematopoietic cells and megakaryocyte progenitors. The coding region of the WAS gene was fully sequenced, and expression of the wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, was evaluated by immunoblotting. The ability of WASP to physically associate with the WASP-interacting protein, WIP, was tested by yeast and mammalian two-hybrid techniques. RESULTS: In addition to thrombocytopenia, our investigation revealed an increased frequency of peripheral megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-Mk) and incomplete cytoplasmic maturation by electron microscopy. Sequencing the WAS gene revealed a single base mutation, resulting in substitution of proline for arginine 138 (i.e., Arg138Pro). immunoblotting demonstrated reduced expression of the mutant WAS protein, and we showed that the Arg138Pro mutation significantly, but incompletely, disrupts WASP-WIP interaction. CONCLUSIONS: In this pedigree, X-linked thrombocytopenia is caused by a rare mutation in the fourth exon of the WAS gene. WASP levels are reduced in lymphocyte cell lines derived from the affected individuals. Furthermore, the mutation significantly but incompletely disrupts WASP-WIP interaction, whereas substitution of alanine or glutamic acid residues at the same position does not. This raises the possibility that protein-protein interaction and WASP stability are related properties. ( info)

15/131. Hypohydrotic ectodermal dysplasia: an unusual presentation and management in an 11-year-old Xhosa boy.

    ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is an inherited disorder in which two or more ectodermally derived structures fail to develop, or are abnormal in development. Hypohydrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) or Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome, is an X-linked recessive syndrome with an incidence of 1/10,000 to 1/100,000 births. Because of its X-linked inheritance pattern, it is more common in males. HED is characterised by hypohydrosis (diminished perspiration), hypotrichosis (decreased amount of hair) and microdontia (small teeth), hypodontia (lack of development of one or more teeth) or adontia (total lack of tooth development). These patients present diagnostic and treatment challenges because of variable oral manifestations. This report describes an 11-year-old Xhosa boy, who was referred to the University Dental faculty by his general medical practitioner because of hypodontia. General facial features included: frontal bossing, a depressed nasal bridge, 'butterfly' pattern of eczema over the nasal bridge to the malar process of each cheek, thinned out hair, loss of vertical dimension of face and dry skin. Intra-oral examination revealed hypodontia with peg-shaped anterior teeth and diastemas. Radiological examination revealed no developing permanent teeth or tooth buds. diagnosis was confirmed by doing a sweat gland count. Management included oral hygiene instruction, fluoride treatments, construction of a partial lower denture and counselling about his condition with particular reference to the danger of hyperthermia and control of allergies. ( info)

16/131. Missense mutation in a patient with X-linked dyskeratosis congenita.

    We report the case of a 40-year-old male patient with dyskeratosis congenita(DKC). Sequencing of the DKC1 gene revealed an inherited missense mutation in base 1050 (GC), changing methionine to isoleucine. This is the third description of a mutation in codon 350 (exon 11), changing a very well conserved amino acid in the pseudouridine synthase (PUA) domain of dyskerin. ( info)

17/131. X-linked myotubular myopathy in a female infant caused by a new MTM1 gene mutation.

    X-linked myotubular myopathy usually affects male infants with a severe phenotype leading to early death or survival with severe handicaps. female carriers have been reported manifesting in childhood with slowly progressive muscle weakness only. The authors describe a now 5-year-old girl with prenatal/neonatal onset of an X-linked myotubular myopathy due to a 605delT mutation in the myotubularin gene. ( info)

18/131. genotype/phenotype correlations of males affected by Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome with GPC3 gene mutations: patient report and review of the literature.

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X-linked overgrowth syndrome with associated visceral and skeletal anomalies. Deletions or point mutations involving the glypican-3 (GPC3) gene at Xq26 are associated with a relatively milder form of this disorder (SGBS1). GPC3 encodes a putative extracellular proteoglycan, glypican-3, that is inferred to play an important role in growth control in embryonic mesodermal tissues in which it is selectively expressed. It appears to form a complex with insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), and might thereby modulate IGF-II action. We reviewed the clinical findings of all published patients with SGBS1 with GPC3 mutations to confirm the clinical specificity for the SGBS1 phenotype. Moreover, we report on a new patient with a GPC3 deletion and IGF-II evaluation. ( info)

19/131. A novel CACNA1F mutation in a french family with the incomplete type of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness.

    PURPOSE: To describe a French family with the incomplete type of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2) associated with a novel mutation in the retina-specific calcium channel alpha(1) subunit gene (CACNA1F). DESIGN: Interventional case report. methods: Two family members with a history of nonprogressive night blindness and subnormal visual acuity were clinically examined and the genotype determined by molecular genetic analysis. RESULT: Both patients had clinical manifestations characteristic of CSNB2. Electrophysiologically, we found a predominant reduction of the ERG B-wave in the maximal response. Both rod and cone function were subnormal, with the latter tending to be more attenuated. We identified a C deletion at nucleotide position 4548, resulting in a frameshift with a predicted premature termination at codon 1524. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical and genetic study of a novel mutation in the CACNA1F gene adds further support to the contention that CSNB2 represents a genetically distinct retinal disorder of a calcium channel. ( info)

20/131. Disruption of the serine/threonine kinase 9 gene causes severe X-linked infantile spasms and mental retardation.

    X-linked West syndrome, also called "X-linked infantile spasms" (ISSX), is characterized by early-onset generalized seizures, hypsarrhythmia, and mental retardation. Recently, we have shown that the majority of the X-linked families with infantile spasms carry mutations in the aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX), which maps to the Xp21.3-p22.1 interval, and that the clinical picture in these patients can vary from mild mental retardation to severe ISSX with additional neurological abnormalities. Here, we report a study of two severely affected female patients with apparently de novo balanced X;autosome translocations, both disrupting the serine-threonine kinase 9 (STK9) gene, which maps distal to ARX in the Xp22.3 region. We show that STK9 is subject to X-inactivation in normal female somatic cells and is functionally absent in the two patients, because of preferential inactivation of the normal X. Disruption of the same gene in two unrelated patients who have identical phenotypes (consisting of early-onset severe infantile spasms, profound global developmental arrest, hypsarrhythmia, and severe mental retardation) strongly suggests that lack of functional STK9 protein causes severe ISSX and that STK9 is a second X-chromosomal locus for this disorder. ( info)
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