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1/1. Dynamic increase of a 45,X cell line in a patient with multicentric ring Y chromosomes.

    Because ring Y chromosomes are unstable during cell division most reported patients are mosaics, usually including a 45,X cell line. The phenotype varies from normal males or females with streak gonads to sexual ambiguities. We present here the case of a 23-year-old man who was referred at 11 years for growth delay. The GTG-banded karyotypes of lymphocytes revealed two cell lines: 46,X,dic r(Y) seen in 76% of the metaphases analyzed and 45,X (24%). Karyotypes and FISH were performed eight years later with the following probes: DYZ3 (Y centromere), SRY (sex-region of the Y), DYZ1 (Yq heterochromatin), CEPX/Y (X centromere and Yq heterochromatin), TelVysion Xp/Yp, Xq/Yq (X and Y subtelomeres), pan-telomeric, cosmid clones LLycos130G04 and LLycos37C09 (PARII), and BAC clone RP11-5C5 (Yq11.223). The results showed an increase in the 45,X cell line (60%) and a reduction in the 46,X,dic r(Y) cell line (36.4%). The use of Yq probes showed that the ring y chromosome was dicentric. In addition, other ring Y structures were observed. The breakpoints occurred in proximal Yp11.32 or in Yp11.31 distal to SRY and in Yq12 distal to the PARII region. Therefore, most of the Y remained intact and all genes, with the exception of those in PARI, are present in double dosage in the dic r(Y). The level of mosaicism was important in defining the phenotype. ( info)

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