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1/35. Protracted and variable latency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia after TEL-AML1 gene fusion in utero.

    We report a pair of identical twins with concordant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Unusually, their diagnoses were spaced 9 years apart at ages 5 and 14. Leukemic cells in both twins had a TEL-AML1 rearrangement, which was characterized at the dna level by an adaptation of a long distance polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The genomic fusion sequence was identical in the two leukemias, indicative of a single cell origin in one fetus, in utero. At the time twin 1 was diagnosed (aged 5 years), the bone marrow of twin 2 was hematologically normal. However, retrospective scrutiny of the dna from an archived slide with clonotypic TEL-AML1 primers showed that the presumptive preleukemic clone was present and disseminated 9 years before a clinical diagnosis. These data provide novel insight into the natural history of childhood leukemia and suggest that consequent to a prenatal initiation of a leukemic clone, most probably by TEL-AML fusion itself, the latency of ALL can be both extremely variable and protracted. This, in turn, is likely to reflect the timing of critical secondary events.
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2/35. Genetic determinants of drug-induced agranulocytosis: potential risk of olanzapine?

    Whether or not olanzapine causes bone marrow toxicity is still a matter of debate. In spite of pre-marketing and post-marketing clinical trials, and although there have been no cases in animals of olanzapine-induced neutropenia or agranulocytosis, the risk of bone marrow toxicity cannot be excluded. The present paper addresses the following questions: what is the potential background of drug-induced agranulocytosis? Are there any case reports supporting the view that olanzapine has relevant bone marrow toxicity? What strategies might be helpful in identifying the pathological mechanisms underlying this side effect?
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3/35. listeria monocytogenes and recurrent mycobacterial infections in a child with complete interferon-gamma-receptor (IFNgammaR1) deficiency: mutational analysis and evaluation of therapeutic options.

    We describe the history of a girl with interferon-gamma-receptor (IFNgammaR1) deficiency and studies performed to identify the molecular and clinical characteristics of this recently discovered disorder. This is the first report of a child from Northern europe with IFNgammaR1 deficiency. The patient, now 7 years old, first presented with swelling and reddening at the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination site, swelling of lymph nodes, hepatomegaly, and an unusually severe varicella rash at the age of 4 months. At that time, she was diagnosed with BCG histiocytosis without typical granuloma formation and was treated with antituberculous agents. During the clinical course of her illness, several different types of atypical mycobacteria and (for the first time in an IFNgammaR1-deficient patient) listeria monocytogenes were detected. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the patient's monocytes could not bind a monoclonal antibody specific for the IFNgamma-receptor. Our analysis of mRNA derived from the alpha-chain (IFNgammaR1) gene of this receptor revealed deletions of 173 bp and 4 bp in cDNA sequences originating from individual alleles. The 173 bp deletion was located between nucleotide positions 200 and 372, exactly matching those of exon 3, and the 4 bp deletion was located between nucleotide positions 561 and 564 of the coding region of the cDNA. Analysis of genomic dna revealed the presence of a G to T transition at the 5'end of the splice consensus sequence of intron 3, which explains the absence of exon 3. The other allele carried the 4-base-pair deletion (ACTC) at nucleotide positions 15-18 of exon 5. Twelve months after an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, the patient had clinically improved.
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4/35. Germline CDKN2A mutation implicated in predisposition to multiple myeloma.

    Germline mutations of the CDKN2A (p16(INK4A)) tumor suppressor gene predispose patients to melanoma and pancreatic carcinoma. In contrast, mutations of the murine CDKN2A gene predispose BALB/c mice to pristane-induced plasmacytoma. We describe here a family in which a germline mutation of CDKN2A is present in 4 individuals who developed melanoma as well as in a fifth family member who is suffering from multiple myeloma. To determine whether the CDKN2A mutation predisposed the myeloma patient to her disease, we carried out loss of heterozygosity studies on sorted bone marrow from this individual and observed loss of the wild type CDKN2A allele in the malignant plasma cells. We suggest that germline mutations of CDKN2A may predispose individuals to a wider variety of malignancy than has been hitherto reported, but that the expression of these cancers may depend heavily on the genetic background of the patient. (blood. 2000;95:1869-1871)
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5/35. chondrosarcoma in a family with multiple hereditary exostoses.

    Multiple hereditary exostoses is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder in which there are numerous cartilage-capped excrescences in areas of actively growing bone. The condition is genetically heterogeneous, and at least three genes, ext1, ext2 and ext3 are involved. The reported risk for malignant transformation to chondrosarcoma has been from 0.6% to 2.8%. We have reviewed six generations of a family with 114 living adult members, 46 of them with multiple exostoses. Four have had operations for chondrosarcoma, giving the risk for malignant transformation as 8.3% in this family. Clinical and radiological examination revealed two additional patients with a suspicion of malignancy, but in whom the histological findings were benign. Reported elsewhere in detail, genetic linkage analysis mapped the causative gene to chromosome 11 and molecular studies revealed a guanine-to-thymine transversion in the ext2 gene. patients with multiple hereditary exostoses carry a relatively high risk of malignant transformation. They should be informed of this possibility and regularly reviewed.
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6/35. Familial pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex disease.

    We report two Japanese families affected by pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, involving an older brother and younger sister in one family and two brothers in the second family. We investigated whether defects in the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene (NRAMP1) underlay susceptibility to MAC in these cases. All of the patients had computed tomographic findings of peripheral nodules and bronchiectasis. pulse-field gel electrophoresis patterns of mycobacterial genomic dna restriction fragments revealed that none of the MAC strains isolated from the patients was epidemiologically related to any of the others. Direct sequencing of the complementary dna of the patients' NRAMP1 revealed a nonconservative missense mutation at codon 419 in one patient, which was heterozygous and was not seen in his affected sibling. No variations similar to those found in mice that show susceptibility to MAC were found. The results suggest an underlying genetic defect in host defense rather than exposure to an unusually virulent strain of MAC as the pathogenetic factor in MAC disease; however, alterations in the coding region of NRAMP1 do not appear to explain the susceptibility to MAC.
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keywords = macrophage
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7/35. A case with extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma: a late effect related to bone marrow transplantation for thalassemia or a component of a familial cancer syndrome?

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has proved to be a radical form of cure in patients with beta-thalassemia major who have a human leukocyte antigen identical donor. Although malignant neoplasms are serious late complications of bone marrow transplantation, very few reports describing the development of malignant tumors after allografting for thalassemia appeared in the literature. A case is presented here of extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma that developed 8 years after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation performed for beta-thalassemia major. The phenotypic features of the patient's family fulfill the criteria for Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and died with recurrent disease. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma after bone marrow transplantation for thalassemia. The possible contribution of transplantation procedure and the genetic factors as well as the primary genetic hemoglobinopathy to the development of this malignant tumor are discussed.
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8/35. Recurrent legg-calve-perthes disease: case report and long-term followup.

    This is the seventh reported case of recurrent legg-calve-perthes disease. The report documents the initial onset in a boy 4 years of age with healing clinically and radiographically. The boy experienced recurrence of disease at 8 years of age with last followup at 20 years of age. Tests related to blood hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis and certain genetic factors relevant to osteonecrosis of the bone are reported.
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9/35. Atypical familial Paget's disease of bone.

    We report unusual clinical and radiological features of Paget's disease of bone in three family members. All three patients had satisfactory biochemical and symptomatic response to treatment with an intravenous bisphosphonate (clodronate).
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10/35. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis.

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is an autosomal-recessive disorder resulting from defective neural crest differentiation with loss of the first-order afferent system, which is responsible for pain and temperature sensation. There is also a neuronal loss in the sympathetic ganglia. Lack of sweating, hyperthermia, and infections of bones are main features of the disorder; however, contradictory results have been published regarding eccrine sweat gland innervation. A 5-year-old male patient with typical clinical manifestations of congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is presented. immunohistochemistry with antibodies against S100 protein and neuron-specific enolase failed to reveal nerve fibers in the vicinity of the eccrine sweat glands. The roles of the nerve growth factor and tyrosine kinase receptor gene mutations in the pathogenesis of the disease are also discussed.
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