Cases reported "Genital Neoplasms, Female"

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1/247. leiomyoma of the round ligament in a postmenopausal woman.

    OBJECTIVE: leiomyoma of the round ligament of the uterus is a rare condition. We present the first case of a postmenopausal, previously hysterectomised, woman who received combined hormonal replacement therapy and developed a leiomyoma of the right round ligament. METHOD: In sections of the tumor, immunohistochemical reaction with monoclonal antibodies against smooth muscle actin, desmin, vimentin, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor was performed. RESULTS: The leiomyoma showed bizarre histologic appearance in absence of mitotic figures and degenerative changes. Leiomyocytes presented a positive immunohistochemical reaction with monoclonal antibodies against smooth muscle actin, desmin vimentin and progesterone receptor in absence of estrogen receptor. CONCLUSION: Progestin as part of a combined hormonal replacement therapy may play an important role in promoting the development of leiomyoma in hormonal responsive tissue of the round ligament in postmenopausal women. ( info)

2/247. skin metastases of gynecologic adenocarcinomas affect serum levels of hCGbeta but not those of SCC antigen.

    Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) has been shown to be elevated in patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix but also in patients with benign tumors of epithelial origin and in benign skin disorders. Elevated serum levels of the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGbeta) have been observed in patients with cancer of different types, and cancer aggressiveness is related to hCGbeta expression. Therefore, we expected that extensive metastatic skin dissemination of gynecologic malignancies would cause a rise in the serum levels of SCC-Ag and hCGbeta. The serum levels of SCC-Ag, hCGbeta and CA 125 were monitored in 2 patients with extensive skin dissemination of ovarian and endometrial adenocarcinoma. skin metastases had no effect on serum levels of SCC-Ag but they caused an increase in serum levels of hCGbeta. SCC-Ag is not a marker for metastatic skin lesions of gynecologic carcinomas of nonepidermoid origin. hCGbeta expression is associated with aggressiveness of cancer and may be a useful marker indicating therapy resistance. ( info)

3/247. Clear-cell epithelioid leiomyoma of the round ligament.

    A case of clear-cell epithelioid leiomyoma of the round ligament in a 69-year-old woman is described. The neoplasm presented as a firm left inguinal mass. A preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated an enhancing lesion extending extra-abdominally from the region of the external inguinal ring. The surgical resection specimen was tan-white, well-circumscribed, and measured 5.8 cm in maximum dimension. Microscopic examination revealed a well-demarcated neoplasm comprised of polygonal cells with abundant clear cytoplasm arranged in clusters and single files with abundant intervening hyalinized stroma. There was minimal nuclear atypia and mitotic figures were rare. periodic acid-Schiff with diastase demonstrated intracytoplasmic glycogen. Immunohistochemical stains for pan-actin, smooth muscle actin, desmin, bcl-2, and vimentin were positive in the tumor cells, whereas stains for CD34, carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, S100 protein, and neurofilaments were negative. Electron microscopy demonstrated features of smooth muscle differentiation including longitudinally oriented fine filaments with focal condensations, pinocytotic activity, and subplasmalemmal densities. This case illustrates the ubiquitous distribution of epithelioid smooth muscle neoplasms and highlights the potential pitfalls for diagnosis when they occur in an unusual location. ( info)

4/247. Intravascular occlusive therapy: use of interventional radiology in cancer patients.

    Selective transcatheter intravascular occlusion in the treatment of cancer patients is a valuable extension of interventional diagnostic radiology. Intra-arterial embolization may be performed with various substances, including autologous clot, autologous subcutaneous tissue, Gelfoam, and stainless steel coil. Clinical applications in cancer patients include control of gastrointestinal and genitourinary hemorrhage, preoperative reduction of tumor vascularity, control of local symptoms, and therapeutic reduction of tumor bulk. The technique has been used for preoperative and palliative treatment of neoplasms of the head and neck, kidney, liver, spleen, and soft tissue and bone. Transcatheter intravascular occlusion should be performed only by radiologists experienced in angiographic techniques. Inadvertent occlusion of a normal vessel and thromboembolism are possible complications. ( info)

5/247. Open magnetic resonance imaging using titanium-zirconium needles: improved accuracy for interstitial brachytherapy implants?

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the benefit of using an open magnetic resonance (MR) machine and new MR-compatible needles to improve the accuracy of brachytherapy implants in pelvic tumors. methods AND MATERIALS: The open MR machine, foreseen for interventional procedures, allows direct visualization of the pelvic structures that are to be implanted. For that purpose, we have developed MR- and CT-compatible titanium-zirconium (Ti-Zr) brachytherapy needles that allow implantations to be carried out under the magnetic field. In order to test the technical feasibility of this new approach, stainless steel (SS) and Ti-Zr needles were first compared in a tissue-equivalent phantom. In a second step, two patients implanted with Ti-Zr needles in the brachytherapy operating room were scanned in the open MR machine. In a third phase, four patients were implanted directly under open MR control. RESULTS: The artifacts induced by both materials were significantly different, strongly favoring the Ti-Zr needles. The implantation in both first patients confirmed the excellent quality of the pictures obtained with the needles in vivo and showed suboptimal implant geometry in both patients. In the next 4 patients, the tumor could be punctured with excellent accuracy, and the adjacent structures could be easily avoided. CONCLUSION: We conclude that open MR using MR-compatible needles is a very promising tool in brachytherapy, especially for pelvic tumors. ( info)

6/247. Congenital perineal lipoma presenting as "ambiguous genitalia": a case report.

    A case is presented in which an unusual, phallic-shaped perineal lipoma raised the question of ambiguous genitalia following the delivery of an otherwise healthy female infant. The management of the case is described, and the critical features of the physical examination that contradicted that diagnosis are highlighted. ( info)

7/247. hand-assisted laparoscopy for pelvic malignancy.

    The inability to palpate intra-abdominal organs is a barrier to the widespread utilization of laparoscopy in the management of pelvic malignancy. Hand-assisted laparoscopy permits the insertion of the hand into the abdomen through a glove-sized incision while preserving the pneumoperitoneum. This new modality preserves both the technical benefits of traditional manual assistance and the convalescent advantages of minimally invasive surgery. Our preliminary experience suggests that this approach is a feasible, safe, and expeditious access option that can effectively replace an extended open laparotomy incision or an excessively tedious laparoscopic exercise in the evaluation and management of pelvic malignancy. Moreover, oncologic surgeons, reluctant to relinquish the tactile advantages of open surgery, may find hand-assisted laparoscopy an appealing alternative. ( info)

8/247. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma treated by continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion chemotherapy.

    Malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum is a rare tumour for which the therapeutic approach has not yet been standardized. The efficacy of the current regimes is limited. Effective locoregional therapy is crucial, since this tumour is most often confined to the peritoneal cavity at the time of the initial diagnosis and remains there for much of its clinical course. If and when haematogenous metastases occur, they rarely contribute to the death of the patient, which is often caused by the overgrowth of the primary tumour and its local complications. A case of diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma treated by cytoreductive surgery and continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion with cisplatin is reported. The patient received systemic combination chemotherapy postoperatively. She is in good condition and free of disease 28 months after her treatment. Continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion chemotherapy has recently been used in patients with secondary peritoneal carcinomatosis from digestive and gynecological malignancies with promising results. It is also possible that the same treatment alone or in combination with systemic chemotherapy may be effective in the treatment of primary peritoneal malignancies, as in the case of diffuse peritoneal mesothelioma. ( info)

9/247. Abnormal genital tract bleeding.

    The etiology of abnormal genital tract bleeding encompasses a wide range of disorders that can be secondary to anatomic changes of the female genital tract, infection, endocrinologic disorders, malignancies, and systemic illness. Appropriate workup is guided by age-related differential diagnoses for abnormal bleeding. Modern diagnostic tools can quickly focus the evaluation and allow timely intervention. Most abnormal genital tract bleeding is uterine bleeding, which is one of the most common gynecologic problems that health care providers will face. It accounts for approximately 15% of office visits and 25% of gynecologic operations. Abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-age women is defined as bleeding at abnormal or unexpected times or by excessive flow at the time of an expected menses. The average menstrual cycle length and duration of flow is 28 days and 4 days, respectively, with an average blood loss of 35 cc (1). Any bleeding should be considered abnormal in premenarchal girls and in post-menopausal women except for those with predictable withdrawal bleeding taking hormone replacement therapy. This article will review the categories of abnormal genital tract bleeding and the diagnostic tools needed to establish the correct diagnosis. Common clinical cases will be presented to illustrate the presenting symptoms, differential diagnoses, workup, treatment, and long-term follow-up. ( info)

10/247. Cytology of clear cell carcinoma of the female genital tract in fine needle aspirates and ascites.

    OBJECTIVE: To define the cytomorphologic features of clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the female genital tract. STUDY DESIGN: The study consisted of four CCCs of the female genital tract in which clinical and histologic confirmation had been done. Cytologic findings were evaluated with May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG) stain of three cases of fine needle aspiration (FNA) material and peritoneal fluid cytology. All the FNA materials were obtained from metastatic supraclavicular lymph nodes. RESULTS: We report here the cytomorphologic features of three FNA biopsies and peritoneal fluid cytology from four patients. Primary tumors from patients with aspiration material from supraclavicular lymph nodes were located in the ovary in two patients and vagina in one. The peritoneal fluid cytology was obtained from a patient with uterine cervical tumor. Cytologic findings were similar in all preparations. The cells had abundant, pale, finely vacuolated cytoplasm with indistinct cytoplasmic membranes. The nuclei were round to oval, with fine chromatin. The characteristic feature of CCC of the genital tract was basement membrane-like substance. This hyaline extracellular material stained pinkish to purple-red in MGG preparations and was frequently observed within the cancer cell clusters. In ascitic fluid, psammoma bodies were also observed. CONCLUSION: The cytomorphologic characteristics of CCC of the genital tract are distinctive, and the entity may easily be diagnosed even at metastatic locations. ( info)
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