Cases reported "Gerstmann Syndrome"

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1/37. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifesting Gerstmann's syndrome.

    We reported a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) via multiple blood transfusions, who manifested progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) about 18 months after the development of AIDS. PML initiated with right hemiparesis, dysphasia, and Gerstmann's syndrome and resulted in death within 2 months after the onset. neuroimaging examinations revealed white matter lesions mainly in the left posterior parietal lobe. The cortical gray matter also showed abnormal signal intensity. Peripheral CD4 lymphocyte count was 81/microl. Routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations were negative. CSF antibodies against herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus as well as serum antibody against toxoplasma gondii were negative. Though autopsy or biopsy of the brain was not performed, jc virus genomes were detected in the CSF sample by a polymerase chain reaction, and their sequencing showed unique alterations of the regulatory regions, characteristic to PML-type jc virus. ( info)

2/37. A pure case of gerstmann syndrome with a subangular lesion.

    The four symptoms composing Gerstmann's syndrome were postulated to result from a common cognitive denominator (Grundstorung) by Gerstmann himself. He suggested that it is a disorder of the body schema restricted to the hand and fingers. The existence of a Grundstorung has since been contested. Here we suggest that a common psychoneurological factor does exist, but should be related to transformations of mental images rather than to the body schema. A patient (H.P.) was studied, who presented the four symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome in the absence of any other neuropsychological disorders. MRI showed a focal ischaemic lesion, situated subcortically in the inferior part of the left angular gyrus and reaching the superior posterior region of T1. The cortical layers were spared and the lesion was seen to extend to the callosal fibres. On the basis of an extensive cognitive investigation, language, praxis, memory and intelligence disorders were excluded. The four remaining symptoms (finger agnosia, agraphia, right-left disorientation and dyscalculia) were investigated thoroughly with the aim of determining any characteristics that they might share. Detailed analyses of the tetrad showed that the impairment was consistently attributable to disorders of a spatial nature. Furthermore, cognitive tests necessitating mental rotation were equally shown to be impaired, confirming the essentially visuospatial origin of the disturbance. In the light of this report, the common cognitive denominator is hypothesized to be an impairment in mental manipulation of images and not in body schema. ( info)

3/37. acetazolamide-induced gerstmann syndrome.

    Acute confusion induced by acetazolamide is a well known adverse drug reaction in patients with renal impairment. We report a case of acetazolamide-induced gerstmann syndrome in a patient with normal renal function, to highlight predisposing factors that are frequently overlooked. ( info)

4/37. Developmental Gerstmann's syndrome: a distinct clinical entity of learning disabilities.

    The symptom complex of finger anomia, right-left disorientation, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia constitutes Gerstmann's syndrome. It is mostly described in adults and is caused by acquired lesions of the dominant parietal lobe. It is infrequently described in children with learning disabilities and has been designated developmental Gerstmann's syndrome. Developmental Gerstmann's syndrome goes unnoticed if not specifically sought by clinicians. A detailed evaluation will reveal subtle neurologic deficits, behavioral problems, and neuropsychologic and specific speech and language abnormalities. Ten such patients are reported; six of the children demonstrated improvement with intensive speech training. Early identification and intervention is therefore crucial, and even more important in cultures in which students are required to be biliterate or triliterate, further increasing the constraints on writing. A selective writing, reading, or calculation abnormality in the presence of normal oral communication triggers several interesting possibilities for the brain mechanisms behind normal language processing. Similarly, the association of acalculia with finger anomia and agraphia with right-left disorientation may have specific implications in the neuropsychologic processing of the evolution of calculation and writing. A theoretical possibility of oral and written language processing from the observation of the language behavior of these children is also described. ( info)

5/37. Posterior cortical atrophy. Two case reports and a review of the literature.

    We present two cases of progressive early-onset dementia with apraxia and visuospatial disability as initial manifestations. In the later stages of the illness Gerstmann's and Balint's syndromes developed. Structural neuroimaging demonstrated parieto-occipital atrophy and functional imaging revealed bilateral hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in these areas. These cases fulfil the diagnostic criteria of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). frontal lobe involvement became evident as the disease progressed. Alzheimer's disease also typically features this anterior spread and possibly this is the underlying pathological substrate for this clinical syndrome, although definite pathology is lacking. In this report, we describe longitudinal evolution in these two cases of PCA. ( info)

6/37. Evaluation and outcome of aphasia in patients with severe closed head trauma.

    In this study long-term observation of 12 patients with aphasia secondary to severe closed head trauma took place. The most frequent symptoms were amnestic aphasia and verbal paraphasia. Only one patient with a constant slow wave EEG focus in the dominant hemisphere had severe receptive symptoms. In all other patients the aphasia recovered rather well, though not totally, but the presence and degree of concomitant neuropsychological disorders were most important for the final outcome. ( info)

7/37. gerstmann syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus: neuropsychological, neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings.

    gerstmann syndrome (GS) comprises four interlaced neuropsychological symptoms including finger agnosia, right-left confusion, agraphia, and acalculia. While GS is commonly associated with focal lesions to the region of the left angular gyrus, it has also been associated with numerous diffuse etiologies including atrophy, alcoholism, carbon monoxide poisoning, lead intoxication and anaphylactic shock. Thus, a vigorous debate has emerged as to whether GS represents a syndrome arising from general brain decline or a distinct and localizing lesion. We report a right-handed patient who developed neuropsychological dysfunction secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Neuropsychological evaluation found the patient to exhibit symptoms consistent with the GS tetrad, as well as general cognitive decline. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a distinct focal lesion of the left parieto-occipital white matter underlying the angular gyrus as well as diffuse atrophy. (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed substantial metabolic derangement in a voxel placed within the visible lesion, although substantial metabolic derangement was observed in regions remote from the focal pathology. Thus, GS in this first case in SLE would appear to comprise a focal neurological tetrad of disorders within a more general pattern of cognitive decline and metabolic derangement. ( info)

8/37. Angular gyrus syndrome mimicking depressive pseudodementia.

    A 67-year-old left-handed woman with a diagnosis of pseudodementia was being treated for depression with little benefit. Neuropsychological evaluations revealed features of angular gyrus syndrome, namely, agraphia, alexia, Gerstmann's syndrome and behavioural manifestations such as depression, poor memory, frustration and irritability. A computed tomographic scan showed a right occipito-temporal infarction, which had occurred 18 months earlier. The patient demonstrated aspects of language dysfunction associated with the syndrome and showed reversed lateralization of cerebral functions. Recognizing and distinguishing between angular gyrus syndrome and depression is important because the appropriate therapies differ. The use of the term pseudodementia can be misleading. ( info)

9/37. Pure global acalculia following a left subangular lesion.

    We describe the case of a right-handed patient who presented a severe acalculia in the context of a pure gerstmann syndrome following a subangular lesion that spared the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The patient showed impairments in Arabic and verbal codes, in number production and comprehension, as well as in numerical facts and problem solving. By using the EC301 calculation battery, semantic and syntactic tasks in Arabic and verbal codes, we tested the different hypotheses raised by the cognitive neuropsychological models of acalculia. The patients' difficulties, which were not associated with a general intellectual deterioration, and those affecting number processing as a particular semantic class, were indicative of a "global acalculia". This deficit, which exceeded the anarithmetia usually described in gerstmann syndrome following left IPL lesion, suggested that the isolation of this area may constitute a sufficient condition for producing such a global acalculia. These results are discussed in terms of a disorder in the manipulation of mental images of spatially related objects. ( info)

10/37. writing, calculating, and finger recognition in the region of the angular gyrus: a cortical stimulation study of gerstmann syndrome.

    OBJECT: In an attempt to gain a better understanding of the cerebral functions represented in the angular gyrus and to spare them during surgery, the authors studied patients with brain tumors located close to the angular gyrus and mapped cortical sites by using electrostimulation. methods: Before undergoing tumor removal, six right-handed patients (five with left and one with right hemisphere tumors) were studied using cortical mapping with the aid of calculating, writing, finger-recognition, and color-naming tasks in addition to standard reading and object-naming tasks (for a total of 36 brain mapping studies). Strict conditions of functional site validation were applied to include only those cortical sites that produced repetitive interferences in the function tested. Preoperatively, four of the patients exhibited discrete symptoms related to gerstmann syndrome while performing very specific tasks, whereas the other two patients presented with no symptoms of the syndrome. No patient had significant language or apraxic deficits. Distinct or shared cortical sites producing interferences in calculating, finger recognition, and writing were repeatedly found in the angular gyrus. Object- or color-naming sites and reading-interference sites were also found in or close to the angular gyrus; although frequently demonstrated, these latter results were variable and unpredictable in the group of patients studied. Finger agnosia and acalculia sites were also found elsewhere, such as in the supramarginal gyrus or close to the intraparietal sulcus. Mechanisms involved in acalculia, agraphia, or finger agnosia (either complete interferences or hesitations) during stimulation were various, from an aphasia-like form (for instance, the patient did not understand the numbers or words given for calculating or writing tasks) to an apparently pure interference in the function tested (patients understood the numbers, but were unable to perform a simple addition). CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of gerstmann syndrome can be found during direct brain mapping in the angular gyrus region. In this series of patients, sites producing interferences in writing, calculating, and finger recognition were demonstrated in the angular gyrus, which may or may not have been associated with object-naming, color-naming, or reading sites. ( info)
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