Cases reported "Glioblastoma"

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1/122. Graphic analysis of microscopic tumor cell infiltration, proliferative potential, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in an autopsy brain with glioblastoma.

    BACKGROUND: growth of brain tumors requires tumor-cell attachment to adjacent structures, degradation of surrounding matrixes, migration of tumor cells, proliferation of vasculature, and tumor cell proliferation. Comparison of the findings on neuroimaging, degrees and patterns of tumor invasion, regional tumor cell viability detected by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry, and regional vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in whole-brain specimen of glioblastoma therefore is of great interest, and will facilitate study of the host reaction against the glioblastoma. methods: We graphically analyzed microscopic tumor-cell infiltration, regional differences in Ki-67 labeling indices (LI), and immunohistochemical expression of VEGF in an autopsy brain with glioblastoma. RESULTS: glioblastoma cells infiltrated the brain far beyond the gross limits of the tumor and the areas with high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. A wide range of histologic malignancy was apparent from hematoxylin-eosin staining and the Ki-67 labeling indices. VEGF was highly expressed in normal astrocytes located outside the tumor. CONCLUSION: Graphic analysis of histologic and immunohistochemical patterns is a useful method of investigating the mechanisms of glioma growth, tumor cell infiltration in the brain, and the host reaction of the brain against neoplasms.
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keywords = neoplasm
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2/122. Malignant supratentorial ganglioglioma (ganglion cell-giant cell glioblastoma): a case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: From both epidemiologic and pathologic viewpoints, gangliogliomas exhibiting components of giant cell glioblastomas are extraordinary neoplasms. We report herein the case of a 6-year-old girl who presented initially with a World health Organization grade IV anaplastic ganglioglioma (a mixed ganglion cell tumor-giant cell glioblastoma). Despite aggressive management, the patient died of disease in a relatively short period. methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were sectioned at 5 microm for histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections and immunohistochemically stained sections from the primary and secondary resections were reviewed. Reactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein, neurofilament protein, synaptophysin, and Ki67 nuclear antigen was evaluated. RESULTS: Histologically, 2 distinct cell populations were noted on both the primary and secondary resections. The primary resection revealed a neoplasm having a predominant glial component consistent with a glioblastoma. Interspersed were dysmorphic ganglion cells supporting a diagnosis of ganglioglioma. The second resection (following therapy) demonstrated a much more prominent dysmorphic ganglion cell component and a subdued glial component. CONCLUSION: Although immunohistochemical analysis clearly distinguished the 2 tumor cell populations, the identification of Nissl substance in neurons proved to be equally helpful. Although other cases of grade III gangliogliomas and rare cases of grade IV gangliogliomas have been reported, the present case is exceptional in that, to our knowledge, it is the only report of a patient who presented initially with a composite grade IV ganglioglioma and who was clinically followed up to the time of death. This case allows direct comparison between the histologic findings in a giant cell glioblastoma and a ganglioglioma and documents the aggressive biologic behavior of this complex neoplasm.
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keywords = neoplasm
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3/122. Transient MRI enhancement in a patient with seizures and previously resected glioma: use of MRS.

    A 35-year-old man presented with partial seizures 10 years after resection of a left-sided glioblastoma multiforme. At the old operative site MRI demonstrated extensive cortical and white matter gadolinium enhancement, and PET showed hypermetabolism. biopsy of the area was postponed when MRS showed a normal biochemical spectrum. MRI and PET abnormalities resolved after control of the seizures. MRS is noninvasive and can provide essential information in the management of patients with seizures and previously treated cerebral neoplasms.
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keywords = neoplasm
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4/122. Dose-related increases in cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of methotrexate in a postoperative patient with glioblastoma.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the postoperative pharmacokinetics of methotrexate in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the space created by tumor removal of a patient with glioblastoma during hyperosmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and intraarterial chemotherapy with a stepwise increase in the methotrexate dosage. CASE SUMMARY: A 30-year-old Japanese woman with glioblastoma received four courses of hyperosmotic disruption of the BBB and intraarterial chemotherapy with a combination of peplomycin, vindesine, nimustine, pirarubicin, and methotrexate. The patient was initially administered mannitol; anticancer drugs were then infused into the left internal carotid artery. Following the first, second, third, and fourth courses of treatment, methotrexate 350, 700, 1000, and 1500 mg, respectively, were administered for 30 minutes. Samples of blood and CSF from the space created by tumor removal were obtained. methotrexate concentrations were measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay and the pharmacokinetic parameters of methotrexate in plasma and CSF were estimated. RESULTS: The plasma concentration of methotrexate peaked at the end of drug infusion, then decreased in a biexponential decay manner during the remainder of the treatment period. The CSF concentration of methotrexate in the space created by tumor removal peaked two hours after drug administration, then monoexponentially decreased. Although the maximal CSF concentration of methotrexate in the space created by tumor removal was lower than that in the plasma, the CSF concentration of methotrexate in the space created by tumor removal exceeded that in the plasma six hours after drug infusion. The half-life of methotrexate in the CSF exceeded that in the plasma. The AUC for the plasma and CSF methotrexate concentration increased parallel with the methotrexate dosage. The mean CSF AUC of methotrexate was 59.4% of that found in plasma. CONCLUSIONS: The CSF AUC of methotrexate in the space created by tumor removal increased parallel with the methotrexate dosage during hyperosmotic disruption of the BBB and intraarterial chemotherapy.
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ranking = 0.15396656222825
keywords = cancer
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5/122. glioblastoma multiforme with epithelial appearance: a case report.

    A case of glioblastoma multiforme with epithelial appearance, which was difficult to diagnose at first operation, is described. microscopy revealed small, darkly staining anaplastic cells which were densely packed. In some areas, these cells were arranged in a tubular, gland-like pattern mimicking a poorly differentiated epithelial neoplasm. Immunostaining of glial fibrirally acidic protein (GFAP) was negative in the densely compact anaplastic areas and within the epithelial patterns, except for a small number of cells in one area. Further pathological study at the second and third operations indicated that the tumor consisted of neoplastic astrocytes and had characteristic features of glioblastoma multiforme, including necrosis, pseudopalisading, and endothelial proliferation. Many of the tumor cells were GFAP-positive. This rare case of glioblastoma multiforme was compared with cases reported in the literature.
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keywords = neoplasm
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6/122. glioblastoma multiforme in a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: investigation a possible oncogenic influence of human immunodeficiency virus on glial cells. Case report and review of the literature.

    Malignant glioma is the most common primary brain neoplasm, but generally it is not included in the differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in a 29-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). Primary CNS lymphoma was suspected, making a definitive histological diagnosis crucial. An initial stereotactic biopsy sample was insufficient to establish a diagnosis and a second biopsy of the lesion was obtained. The histopathological investigation confirmed GBM and adjuvant external radiation treatment was given to the patient, who survived for 4 months after the initial biopsy. A decline in the rate of toxoplasma infection and the changing diseases observed in hiv infection indicate the importance of obtaining a biopsy in cases of CNS mass lesions.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neoplasm
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7/122. Right temporal lobe glioblastoma presenting in the left orbit. Case report.

    Dissemination of gliomas outside the central nervous system without preceding neurosurgery is a rare phenomenon. Glial neoplasms presenting as bone lesions are even more rare. A case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with initial presentation in the orbit following a single generalized seizure is described. Signs of intracranial hypertension resulted from subarachnoid tumor invasion. The patient was treated with whole-dose radiation therapy but survived for only 6 months following the initial presentation. An autopsy revealed a right temporal GBM with extensive subarachnoid spread and invasion in the left orbit and skull base. The literature on dissemination of primary tumors of the brain is reviewed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neoplasm
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8/122. pharmacokinetics of cytosine arabinoside, methotrexate, nimustine and valproic acid in cerebrospinal fluid during cerebrospinal fluid perfusion chemotherapy.

    This report investigates the pharmacokinetics of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), methotrexate (MTX), nimustine (ACNU) and valproic acid (VPA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during CSF perfusion chemotherapy. A 28-year-old Japanese woman with disseminated glioblastoma was, on admission, on a stable oral regimen of prolonged-release VPA tablets (Depakene-R), 400 mg twice a day, for seizure control. Twelve courses of CSF perfusion chemotherapy with Ara-C, MTX, and ACNU were administered. Plasma samples and CSF samples via Ommaya reservoirs were obtained during the eleventh course of treatment. The Ara-C and ACNU concentrations were measured by HPLC. The MTX and VPA concentrations were measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. During CSF perfusion chemotherapy, the highest CSF concentrations of Ara-C, MTX, and ACNU were observed at the end of the perfusion and decreased in a monoexponential pattern. The half-lives of Ara-C, MTX, and ACNU were 2.65, 3.52, and 0.71 h, respectively. No anticancer drugs were detectable in plasma during CSF perfusion chemotherapy. Before CSF perfusion chemotherapy, the free VPA concentration in plasma was 14.4% of the total VPA concentration. The mean total and free VPA concentrations in plasma were 78.0 /-0.8 and 10.9-0.3 microg/ml, respectively. The free VPA concentrations in plasma and in CSF were of similar values. At the end of perfusion, the lowest free VPA concentration in CSF was 30.3% of that at the initiation of perfusion. The free VPA concentrations in CSF at 3, 7, 23, and 47 h after the end of perfusion were 79.8, 94.5, 100.9, and 100.9% respectively of that at the initiation of perfusion. During CSF perfusion chemotherapy, the ratio of free VPA concentrations to the total VPA in CSF was 86.3 /-6.9%. The VPA concentrations in CSF rapidly decreased during the CSF perfusion but recovered to pre-treatment levels within 7 h.
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ranking = 0.15396656222825
keywords = cancer
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9/122. Brain tumors as second malignant neoplasms in patients with osteosarcoma treated with adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy: report of 2 cases.

    A malignant, primary brain tumor developed as Second Malignant Neoplasm (SMN) in 2/490 long-term-survivor osteosarcoma patients treated at our Institute over a 20-yr period. They developed the brain tumor (one astrocytoma and one glioblastoma) 3 and 5 yr after treatment, (chemotherapy and surgery), for localized osteosarcoma of the extremity.
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ranking = 4
keywords = neoplasm
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10/122. optic nerve sheath fenestration for a reversible optic neuropathy in radiation oncology.

    To the authors' knowledge, there is a paucity of published accounts of management of radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) by optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) in the conventional medical literature. With higher doses of radiation being given by using conformal techniques, more radiation-induced optic neuritis and neuropathy will be identified. We report here the successful use of ONSF to restore vision to three consecutive patients with pending anterior RION, and the importance of early identification and intervention in these potentially reversible cases.
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ranking = 226.12735859458
keywords = radiation-induced
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